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Cách dùng “thủ pháp lập lờ” – ambiguity – trong tiếng Anh

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Warm-up:

Một cô gái mặc bộ bikini mỏng, mải vẫy vùng bơi lội, chẳng may chiếc quần lót bị bung mất. Không biết làm sao để lên bờ trong lúc trên đó có rất nhiều đàn ông.

Loay hoay một lúc, cô gái nhanh trí liền gỡ một tấm bảng chỉ dẫn của hồ bơi che vào phía dưới và thản nhiên bước lên. Bỗng rộ lên những tiếng cười, cô gái giật mình nhìn xuống thì thấy tấm bảng ghi dòng chữ “Khu vực dành cho đàn ông”.

Mắc cỡ, nhưng bình tĩnh, cô gái liền lật úp tấm bảng chỉ dẫn lại. Lần này tiếng cười rộ lại to hơn. Nhìn xuống cô thấy dòng chữ: “Độ sâu 3m5”.

 


 

Use ambiguity for good, not evil

Ambiguity can go either way. Its effects range from the ridiculous to the sublime. On the ridiculous end of the spectrum are examples like “Touch Me, I’m Dick,” the name of a song written by the rock star wannabe played by Matt Dillon in the 1992 movie Singles. The movie takes place in Seattle in the heyday of grunge. The song’s fictional title plays on “Touch Me,I’m Sick,” the name of an actual song by Mudhoney, one of the representative bands of that scene.

Read more below:

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Cách tránh lỗi “lập lờ” – ambiguity – khi sử dụng tiếng Anh

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Warm-up:

Gia đình kia quyết định đi du lịch một tuần. Họ thuê hai cô nhân viên điều dưỡng về chăm sóc cho bà cụ già bị liệt hai chân và cấm khẩu.

Cả nhà đi khỏi, hai cô cho bà cụ tắm rửa, ăn uống, rồi đặt cụ lên xe lăn ra vườn chơi. Mọi việc đều tiến triển tốt. Nhưng rồi đột nhiên bà cụ từ từ ngả người sang một bên, mặt “trầm ngâm”. Hốt hoảng, hai cô vội vàng giữ vai và dựng cụ thẳng người lên. Bà cụ không nói gì, nhưng sau đó một lúc, cụ lại từ từ nghiêng người qua phía kia. Ngay lập tức, họ lại vực cụ ngồi thẳng dậy. Cứ thế, họ phải túc trực bên bà cụ suốt cả mấy hôm vì sự việc đó xảy ra liên tục.

Khi gia đình kia đi chơi về, họ hỏi bà cụ xem hai cô gái chăm sóc bà có tốt không. Bà viết nguệch ngoạc vào tờ giấy mấy dòng: “Nói chung là chu đáo, nhưng có điều chúng nó nhất quyết không cho tao… đánh rắm lần nào trong suốt cả tuần liền!”


 

Ambiguity and how to avoid it

Xem thêm bài: Cách tránh lỗi “mập mờ” khi viết tiếng Anh – Avoiding ambiguity in your writing

Example 1: This morning I shot an elephant in my pajamas.

Who was wearing the pajamas? The hunter or the elephant?

This is a syntactical ambiguity that can be cleared up grammatically.

Improved: This morning, in my pajamas, I shot an elephant.

Though you could probably tell from context what the author meant, there is no reason to unintentionally make such a mistake.

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“Ambiguity” hay là sự lập lờ ý nghĩa trong sử dụng tiếng Anh

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Warm-up:

Chàng trai nọ chạy thục mạng đuổi theo một chiếc xe buýt chở đầy du khách, nhưng chiếc xe đổ dốc rất nhanh.

“Dừng lại đi.” Một người khách tốt bụng thò đầu ra cửa sổ hét lớn với anh chàng “Cậu không đuổi kịp nó đâu, đợi chuyến sau vậy!”

“Nhất định cháu phải đuổi kịp ạ.” Chàng trai trẻ vừa nói vừa thở hồng hộc: “Vì cháu là tài xế xe này mà.”

 

AMBIGUITY

A word, phrase, or sentence is ambiguous if it has more than one meaning. The word ‘light’, for example, can mean not very heavy or not very dark. Words like ‘light’, ‘note’, ‘bear’ and ‘over’ are lexically ambiguous. They induce ambiguity in phrases or sentences in which they occur, such as ‘light suit’ and ‘The duchess can’t bear children’. However, phrases and sentences can be ambiguous even if none of their constituents is. The phrase ‘porcelain egg container’ is structurally ambiguous, as is the sentence ‘The police shot the rioters with guns’. Ambiguity can have both a lexical and a structural basis, as with sentences like ‘I left her behind for you’ and ‘He saw her duck’.

Read more below:

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Phép ẩn dụ – metaphor – trong tiếng Anh

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Warm-up:

Cô gái đi học trên thành phố, nửa đêm nhận được tin nhắn: “Chào em, mình làm quen được không? Em có người yêu chưa?”
– Em có rồi anh ạ!
– Thế á, cha mày đây, sớm mai bắt xe về quê ngay họp gia đình chuyện này!
Hôm sau cô gái nhất quyết không về, nửa đêm lại có tin nhắn:
– Anh phải làm sao để được làm bạn em? Cho phép anh làm quen nhá! Em có người yêu chưa?
– Em chưa!
– Em làm anh thất vọng quá, một phép thử đơn giản là biết được lòng nhau ngay, mình chia tay thôi!
– Ôi em xin lỗi, em tưởng ông già em, cho e một lời giải thích.
– Giải thích gì? Ông già mày đây, mai không về quê thì đừng về nữa! Gọi cả thằng đó về cho tao!


Metaphor

“All the world’s a stage,
And all the men and women merely players
They have their exits and their entrances”
 -William Shakespeare

metaphor is a figure of speech that says that one thing is another different thing. This allows us to use fewer words and forces the reader or listener to find the similarities.

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Sáu lỗi thường mắc khi viết tiếng Anh – Six common English writing mistakes

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Warm-up:

Thiếu tá Phạm Tuân là phi công Việt Nam đầu tiên được lựa chọn để cùng bay với phi hành gia Nga Gorbatko lên vũ trụ. Tất nhiên Gorbatko là chỉ huy trưởng, Phạm Tuân chỉ được ngồi quan sát chứ không được lái.

Sau khi ngồi lái cả ngày, đến đêm Gorbatko bảo Tuân:

– Mày cầm lái tí nhé, tao đi đái một cái rồi vào ngay. Nhưng mà cứ giữ nguyên thế chứ đừng có vặn vẹo gì mà chết đấy!

Năm phút sau, Gorbatko trở về chui vào khoang lái, thở phào nhẹ nhõm, mặt mày tươi tỉnh. Tuân hỏi:

– Ông đái vào đâu thế?

– Ôi dào, đang mót cứng cả bụng, tao cứ thấy chỗ nào tôi tối là tao phang bừa xuống.

– Thôi chết rồi! Thế thì ông đái vào Thủ đô của chúng tôi rồi!

(Bấy giờ là năm 1980. Chiến tranh đã hết nhưng Hà Nội ban đêm bị cắt điện liên tục.)


Mistake #1:  Switching tenses unnecessarily

One of the more common problems seen in ESL writing is unnecessary switching between past, present and future tenses. Changing between verb tenses within a sentence can make it difficult for the reader to follow a piece of writing and should be avoided. An exception to this is when a time change must be shown.

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Cách tránh lỗi chính tả trong viết tiếng Anh – English spelling

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Howtospelluk’s clip on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.

Select “How to spell: Tip 9 – Top Ten Spelling Rules” from the playlist.


 

English spelling is notoriously difficult to master for native speakers and language learners alike. Because English developed from several different language families, and because it so easily absorbs new words from other languages even today, the English language has many different ways to spell the same sound and many different ways to pronounce the same spelling. But improving your English spelling is not impossible: with some patience, you will see a noticeable improvement in your spelling by using some techniques that good spellers use. See more below:

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Làm sao để khỏi “dài dòng văn tự” – wordiness?

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One of the most efficient ways to improve your writing is to edit it for conciseness. You may have been struggling to think ideas through as you wrote—and piled up alternative wordings. Or you may have fallen into the habit of using more words than necessary just to use up space. If you can let your original draft “cool down” a while, you will find it easier to recognize unnecessary words and edit them out. Your reader will thank you! Here are some common patterns of wordiness, with sensible things to do about them.  See more below:

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Thư “rãn” tý với trò nói lái – Spoonerisms

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Spoonerisms are words or phrases in which letters or syllables get swapped. This often happens accidentally in slips of the tongue (or tips of the slung as Spoonerisms are often affectionately called!).

See more below:

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“Giọng” văn trong viết tiếng Anh – Tone in writing English

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Clip on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


What is Tone?

“Tone in writing refers to the writer’s attitude toward the reader and the subject of the message. The overall tone of a written message affects the reader just as one’s tone of voice affects the listener in everyday exchanges” (Ober 88).  See more below:

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Viết thư công việc – Một số quy tắc cơ bản – Writing business letters

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This resource covers the parts of the basic business letter and provides three sample business letters.

Parts of a Business Letter

This resource is organized in the order in which you should write a business letter, starting with the sender’s address if the letter is not written on letterhead. See more below:

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Cách dùng đề mục trong viết tiếng Anh (kể cả tiếng Việt) – Using headings

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Use headings in a report, memo, or website to highlight major sections and to provide the reader with cues to your main points. Headings help the reader scan a document, discern its overall structure, and locate information more quickly. See more below:

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Lựa lời mà nói [2] – Bias in language

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Xem thêm bài: Lựa lời mà nói [1] – Bias in language

Bias appears in language when a writer or speaker uses language in a way that stereotypes or excludes on the basis of race, ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual orientation, physical capabilities, etc. Read the following sample sentence:

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Một số lưu ý khi viết email – Email Etiquette

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Although instant and text/SMS messaging is beginning to supplant email for some groups’ primary means of Internet communication, effective and appropriate email etiquette is still important. This resource will help you to become an effective writer and reader/manager of email. See blow:

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Cách biến hóa trong viết tiếng Anh (và cả tiếng Việt) để tránh nhàm chán – Variation in writing

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This resource presents methods for adding sentence variety and complexity to writing that may sound repetitive or boring. Sections are divided into general tips for varying structure, a discussion of sentence types, and specific parts of speech which can aid in sentence variety.

Strategies for Variation

Adding sentence variety to prose can give it life and rhythm. Too many sentences with the same structure and length can grow monotonous for readers. Varying sentence style and structure can also reduce repetition and add emphasis. Long sentences work well for incorporating a lot of information, and short sentences can often maximize crucial points. These general tips may help add variety to similar sentences.

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Cách viết [biên/văn] bản ghi nhớ (memo)

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This article will help you solve your memo-writing problems by discussing what a memo is, describing the parts of memos, and providing examples and explanations that will make your memos more effective.

See more below:

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Cách viết CV bằng tiếng Anh – CV writing etiquitte [1]

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Clip on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


Having a solid and effective resume can greatly improve your chances of landing that dream job. That is beyond discussion. How does one make sure that his resume is top notch and bullet proof, however? There are several websites with tips around the web, but most bring just a handful of them. We wanted to put them all together in a single place, and that is what you will find below: 44 resume writing tips.

See more below:

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Cách viết CV bằng tiếng Anh – CV writing etiquitte [2]

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Length

Most employers want the print résumé to be brief: The usual recommendation, often strongly stated, is that the résumé should not be more than one page long (one side of an 8 1/2′ x 11″ page). Certainly entry-level job candidates (just out of college) should heed this length constraint. People in mid-career or applicants with extensive and/or various workplace experiences can consider having a résumé that is longer than one page.

See more below:

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Một số ví dụ về nguyên tắc “cân bằng – parallelism” trong viết tiếng Anh

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In crafting sentences that compare one thing to another or represent one thought in contrast to another, writers often omit key words or phrases because they misunderstand how one phrase is balanced against another. In constructing sentences with parallel structure, think of the two parallel elements as figures on a seesaw, and the connecting word or phrase as the fulcrum, then check whether the elements on either side of the fulcrum are equally balanced:

See more below:

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“Cân bằng – Parallelism” – một nguyên tắc quan trọng trong viết tiếng Anh

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Unskillful writers often violate this principle, from a mistaken belief that they should constantly vary the form of their expressions. It is true that in repeating a statement in order to emphasize it writers may have need to vary its form. But apart from this, writers should follow carefully the principle of parallel construction.

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Tổng hợp cách sử dụng các dạng thức viết tắt trong tiếng Anh – All about abbreviations in English

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Abbreviate the following:

Titles before names:

Mrs., Mr., Ms., Prof., Dr., Gen., Rep., Sen., St. (for Saint)

Notice that Miss is not an abbreviation, so we don’t put a period after it. Ms. is not an abbreviation, either, but we do use a period after it — probably to keep it consistent with Mr. and Mrs.

The plural of Mr. is Messrs. (We invited Messrs. Carter, Lincoln, and Ford.) The plural of Dr. is Drs. (We consulted Drs. Carter, Lincoln, and Ford.) The plural of Mrs. is Mmes or Mmes. (with or without the period).

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Mười quy tắc viết số và chữ số

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Xem thêm bài: Cách thể hiện số trong viết tiếng Anh – Một số nguyên tắc chung – Presenting numbers in English (General)


1. Number versus numeral.

First things first, what is the difference between a number and a numeral? A number is an abstract concept while a numeral is a symbol used to express that number. “Three,” “3″ and “III” are all symbols used to express the same number (or the concept of “threeness”). One could say that the difference between a number and its numerals is like the difference between a person and her name.

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Từ và cụm từ Latin và Hy Lạp thông dụng trong tiếng Anh

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Xem thêm bài: Cách đọc chữ cái Hy Lạp thông dụng bằng tiếng Anh

Even though Latin is considered a dead language (no country officially speaks it), its influence upon other languages makes it still important. Latin words and expressions are present in virtually all the languages around the world, as well as on different scientific and academic fields.

Below you will find a list with the most used and important Latin words and expressions, enjoy!

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Ôi! ngữ pháp… ! Đến dân bản ngữ cũng còn ỏm tỏi với nhau [1]

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Xem thêm bài: Ôi, ngữ pháp! Đến dân bản ngữ cũng còn ỏm tỏi với nhau [2]


1. Never split an infinitive.

It isn’t wise to always ignore this fallacious rule against dividing the elements of the verb phrase “to (verb)” with an adverb, but to blindly follow it is to prohibit pleasing turns of phrase — one of the best known of which is from the introductory voice-over from all the Star Trek television series: “to boldly go where no one has gone before.” (The original series, produced before the more recent sensitivity to gender bias, put it “no man.”)

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25 lỗi lính rất kỳ cựu cũng có thể mắc trong sử dụng tiếng Anh

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List of common mistakes by very advanced learners.

See below:

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35 lỗi lính kỳ cựu cũng mắc trong sử dụng tiếng Anh

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List of common mistakes by advanced learners:

See below:

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35 lỗi lính hạng trung thường mắc trong sử dụng tiếng Anh

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List of common mistakes by intermediate learners:

See below:

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35 lỗi lính tò te thường mắc trong sử dụng tiếng Anh

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List of common mistakes by beginners:

See below:

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Tại sao cần hiểu và dùng đúng tổ hợp từ trong tiếng Anh (collocation)

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[Xem thêm bài: Tổ hợp từ – Collocation -trong tiếng Anh]

What is a collocation?

A collocation is a group of words that usually go together. For example, in English, we usually say ‘heavy rain’. It’s correct grammatically to say ‘strong rain’ or ‘big rain’, but both of these sound completely strange. A native English speaker would never say ‘big rain’. If you use the normal collocation (‘heavy rain’) your English will sound a lot better and more natural and it will be easier for native speakers to understand you. Collocations are very, very important.

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100 lời khuyên cho người học tiếng Anh

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Bài viết của cô Hester đăng trên http://www.langports.com/

Một số lời khuyên dành cho người học tiếng Anh. Không hẳn đã đúng cả, nhưng cũng rất bổ ích. Cảm ơn Hester!

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Một số thành ngữ thông dụng trong tiếng Anh – Idioms

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Increase your vocabulary and speak more natural English by studying the idioms and expressions below. These are some of the most common expressions in English. Study the example sentences which show how idioms are used in context when you speak English. Have fun!

See the idioms below:

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Cách đọc phân số, thập phân, dấu mũ, số đếm, số thứ tự trong tiếng Anh

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Fractions

½ a half /ə ‘hɑ:f/
¼ a quarter /ə ‘kwɔːtə/
¾ three quarters /θriː ‘kwɔːtəz/
a third /ə ‘θɜ:d/
two thirds /tu: ‘θɜ:dz/
a fifth /ə ‘fɪfθ/
two fifths /tu: ‘fɪfθs/
three fifths /θriː ‘fɪfθs/
four fifths /fɔː ‘fɪfθs/
a sixth /ə ‘sɪksθ/
five sixths /faɪv ‘sɪksθs/
an eighth /ən ‘eɪtθ/
three eighths /θriː ‘eɪtθs/
five eighths /faɪv ‘eɪtθs/
seven eighths /sevən ‘eɪtθs/

 

Decimal Fractions

0.1 nought point one /nɔ:t pɔɪnt wʌn/
0.01 nought point oh one /nɔ:t pɔɪnt əʊ wʌn/
0.0001 nought point oh oh oh one /ten pɔɪnt əʊ əʊ əʊ wʌn/
1.1 one point one /wʌn pɔɪnt wʌn/
1.2 one point two /wʌn pɔɪnt tu:/
1.23 one point two three /wʌn pɔɪnt tu: θri:/
1.0123 one point oh one two three /wʌn pɔɪnt əʊ wʌn tu: θri:/
10.01 ten point oh one /ten pɔɪnt əʊ wʌn/
21.57 twenty-one point five seven /’twentɪ wʌn pɔɪnt  faɪv ‘sevən/
2.6666666666…. two point six recurring /tu: pɔɪnt  sɪks rɪ’kɜ:rɪŋ/
2.612361236123… two point six one two three recurring /tu: pɔɪnt  sɪks wʌn tu: θri: rɪ’kɜ:rɪŋ/
2.5 million two point five million /tu: pɔɪnt  faɪv ‘mɪljən/

 

SI Units: Prefixes

 

Prefix Symbol 10n Long/Short Scale
yotta (gr. okto – eight) Y 1024 Quadrillion/Septillion
zetta (lat. septem – seven) Z 1021 Trilliard/Sextillion
eksa (gr. ex – six) E 1018 Trillion/Quintillion
peta (gr. penta – five) P 1015 Billiard/Quadrillion
tera (gr. teras – monster) T 1012 Billion/Trillion
giga (gr. gigas – giant) G 109 Milliard/Billion
mega (gr. megas – great) M 106 Million/Million
kilo (gr. khilioi – thousand) k 10³ Thousand/Thousand
hecto (gr. hekaton – hundred) h 10² Hundred/Hundred
deca (gr. deka – ten) da 101 Ten/Ten
100 One/One
decy (lat. decimus – tenth) d 10-1 Tenth/Tenth
centy (lac. centum – hundredth) c 10-2 Hundredth/Hundredth
milli (lac. mille – thousand) m 10-3 Thousandth/Thousandth
mikro (gr. mikros – small) µ 10-6 Millionth/Millionth
nano (gr. nanos – dwarf) n 10-9 Milliardth/Billionth
pico (it. piccolo – small) p 10-12 Billionth/Trillionth
femto (den. femten – fifteen) f 10-15 Billiardth/Quadrillionth
atto (den. atten – eighteen) a 10-18 Trillionth/Quintillionth
zepto (lat. septem – seven) z 10-21 Trilliardth/Sextillionth
yokto (gr. okto – eight) y 10-24 Quadrillionth/Septillionth

 

Cardinal Numbers

1 one /wʌn/
2 two /tu:/
3 three /θri:/
4 four /fɔː/
5 five /faɪv/
6 six /sɪks/
7 seven /’sevən/
8 eight /eɪt/
9 nine /naɪn/
10 ten /ten/
11 eleven /ɪ’levən/
12 twelve /twelv/
13 thirteen /θɜ:’ti:n/
14 fourteen /fɔː’ti:n/
15 fifteen /fɪf’ti:n/
16 sixteen /sɪkst’i:n/
17 seventeen /seven’ti:n/
18 eighteen /eɪ’ti:n/
19 nineteen /naɪn’ti:n/
20 twenty /’twentɪ/
21 twenty-one /twentɪ’wʌn/
22 twenty-two /twentɪ’tu:/
23 twenty-three /twentɪ’θri:/
24 twenty-four /twentɪ’fɔː/
25 twenty-five /twentɪ’faɪv/
26 twenty-six /twentɪ’sɪks/
27 twenty-seven /twentɪ’sevən/
28 twenty-eight /twentɪ’eɪt/
29 twenty-nine /twentɪ’naɪn/
30 thirty /’θɜ:tɪ/
40 forty /’fɔːtɪ/
50 fifty /’fɪftɪ/
60 sixty /’sɪkstɪ/
70 seventy /’sevəntɪ/
80 eighty /’eɪtɪ/
90 ninety /’naɪntɪ/
100 a hundred; one hundred /ə ‘hʌndrəd/ /wʌn ‘hʌndrəd/
101 a hundred and one /ə ‘hʌndrəd ən wʌn/
102 a hundred and two /ə ‘hʌndrəd ən tu:/
110 a hundred and ten /ə ‘hʌndrəd ən ten/
120 a hundred and twenty /ə ‘hʌndrəd ən ‘twentɪ/
200 two hundred /tu: ‘hʌndrəd/
300 three hundred /θri:  ‘hʌndrəd/
400 four hundred /fɔː ‘hʌndrəd/
500 five hundred /faɪv ‘hʌndrəd/
600 six hundred /sɪks ‘hʌndrəd/
700 seven hundred /’sevən ‘hʌndrəd/
800 eight hundred /eɪt ‘hʌndrəd/
900 nine hundred /naɪn ‘hʌndrəd/
1 000 a thousand, one thousand /ə θ’ɑʊzənd/ /wʌn ‘θɑʊzənd/
1 001 a thousand and one /ə ‘θɑʊzənd ən wʌn/
1 010 a thousand and ten /ə ‘θɑʊzənd ən ten/
1 020 a thousand and twenty /ə ‘θɑʊzənd ən ‘twentɪ/
1 100 one thousand, one hunded /wʌn ‘θɑʊzənd wʌn ‘hʌndrəd/
1 101 one thousand, one hundred and one /wʌn ‘θɑʊzənd wʌn ‘hʌndrəd ən wʌn/
1 110 one thousand, one hundred and ten /wʌn ‘θɑʊzənd wʌn ‘hʌndrəd ən ten/
9 999 nine thousand, nine hundred and ninety-nine /naɪn ‘θɑʊzənd naɪn ‘hʌndrəd ən ‘naɪntɪ ‘naɪn/
10 000 ten thousand /ten ‘θɑʊzənd/
15 356 fifteen thousand, three hundred and fifty six /’fɪfti:n ‘θɑʊzənd θri: ‘hʌndrəd ən ‘fɪftɪ sɪks/
100 000 a hundred thousand /ə ‘hʌndrəd ‘θɑʊzənd/
1 000 000 a million /ə ‘mɪljən/
100 000 000 a hundred million /ə ‘hʌndrəd ‘mɪljən/
1 000 000 000 a billion /ə ‘bɪljən/
100 000 000 000 a hundred billion /ə ‘hʌndrəd ‘bɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 a trillion /ə ‘trɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 a quadrillion /ə kwɒdrɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 a quintillian /ə kwɪn’tɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 a sextillion /ə seks’tɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 a septillion /ə sep’tɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 an ocillion /ən ɒkt’tɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 a nonillion /ə nɒn’ɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 a decillion /ə de’sɪljən/

 

Ordinal Numbers

1st first /fɜ:st/
2nd second /’sekənd/
3rd third /θɜ:d/
4th fourth /fɔ:θ/
5th fifth /fɪfθ/
6th sixth /sɪksθ/
7th seventh /’sevənθ/
8th eighth /eɪtθ/
9th ninth /naɪnθ/
10th tenth /tenθ/
11th eleventh /ɪ’levənθ/
12th twelfth /’twelfθ/
13th thirteenth /θɜ:’ti:nθ/
14th fourtheenth /fɔː’ti:nθ/
15th fidteenth /fɪf’ti:nθ/
16th sixteenth /sɪks’ti:nθ/
17th seventeenth /seven’ti:nθ/
18th eighteenth /eɪ’ti:nθ/
19th nineteenth /naɪn’ti:nθ/
20th twentieth /’twentɪəθ/
21st twenty-first /twentɪ’fɜ:st/
22nd twenty-second /twentɪ’sekənd/
23rd twenty-third /twentɪ’θɜ:d/
24th twenty-fourth /twentɪ’fɔ:θ/
25th twenty-fifth /twentɪ’fɪfθ/
26th twenty-sixth /twentɪ’sɪksθ/
27th twenty-seventh /twentɪ’sevənθ/
28th twenty-eighth /twentɪ’eɪtθ/
29th twenty-ninth /twentɪ’naɪnθ/
30th thirtieth /’θɜːtɪəθ/
31st thirty-first /θɜːtɪ’fɜ:st/
40th fortieth /’fɔ:tɪəθ/
50th fiftieth /’fɪftɪəθ/
100th hundredth /’hʌndrədθ/
1 000th thousandth /’θɑʊzəndθ/
1 000 000th miilionth /’mɪljənθ/

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Cách đọc chữ cái Hy Lạp thông dụng bằng tiếng Anh

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Clip on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


Xem thêm bài: Từ và cụm từ Latin và Hy Lạp thông dụng trong tiếng Anh

Greek alphabet

Α α alpha /’ælfə/
Β β beta /’bi:tə/
Γ γ gamma /’gæmə/
Δ δ delta /’deltə/
Ε ε epsilon /’epsilən/
Ζ ζ zeta /’ziːtə/
Η η eta /’iːtə/
Θ θ theta /’θiːtə/
Ι ι iota /aɪ’əʊtə/
Κ κ kappa /’kæpə/
Λ λ lamda /’læmdə/
Μ μ mu /’mjuː/
Ν ν nu /’njuː/
Ξ ξ xi /’ksaɪ/
Ο ο omicron /’əʊmɪkrən/
Π π pi /’paɪ/
Ρ ρς rho /’rəʊ/
Σ σ sigma /’sɪgmə/
Τ τ tau /’tɑʊ/
Υ υ upsilon /’jʊpsɪlən/
Φ φ phi /’faɪ/
Χ χ chi /’kaɪ/
Ψ ψ psi /’psaɪ/
Ω ω omega /’əʊmɪgə/

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Cách đọc ký hiệu toán học và khoa học trong tiếng Anh

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Common pronunciations (in British English – Gimson,1981) of mathematical and scientific symbols are given in the list below.

Symbols

+ plus /’plʌs/
minus /’maɪnəs/
± plus or minus /’plʌs  ɔ:  ‘maɪnəs/
x multiplied by /’mʌltɪplaɪd baɪ/
/ over; divided by /’əʊvə/ /dɪ’vaɪdəd/
÷ divided /dɪ’vaɪdəd/
= equals /’ɪ:kwəlz/
approximately, similar /ə’prɒksɪmətlɪ/ /’sɪmɪlə tʊ/
equivalent to; identical /ɪk’wɪvələnt tʊ/ /aɪ’dentɪkl tʊ/
not equal to /’nɒt ‘iːkwəl tʊ/
> greater than /’greɪtə ðən/
< less than /’les ðən/
greater than or equal to /’greɪtə ðən ər ‘iːkwəl tʊ/
less than or equal to /’les ðən ər’ iːkwəl tʊ/
not greater than /’nɒt ‘greɪtə ðən/
not less than /’nɒt ‘les ðən/
much greater than /’mʌʧ ‘greɪtə ðən/
much less than /’mʌʧ ‘les ðən/
perpendicular to /pɜːpən’dɪkjʊlə tʊ/
∣∣ parallel to /’pærəlel tʊ/
not equivalent to, not identical to /’nɒt ɪk’wɪvələnt tʊ/ /’nɒt aɪ’dentɪkl tʊ/
≄≉ not similar to /’nɒt ‘sɪmɪlə tʊ/
² squared /’skweəd/
³ cubed /’kju:bd/
4 to the fourth;  to the power four /tə ðə ‘fɔːθ/ /te ðə ‘pɑʊə fɔː/
n  to the n; to the nth; to the power n /tə ðɪ en; tə dɪ enθ; tə ðə pɑʊər en/
root; square root /ru:t/ /skweə ru:t/
cube root /kju:b ru:t/
fourth root /fɔːθ ruːt/
! factorial /fæk’tɔːrɪəl/
% percent /pə’sent/
infinity /ɪn’fɪnətɪ/
varies as; proportional to /’vɛərɪz/  /prə’pɔːʃənəl/
˙ dot /dɒt/
¨ double dot /dʌbl dɒt/
: is to, ratio of /reɪʃɪəʊ/
f(x) fx f; function /ef/ /’fʌŋkʃən/
f'(x) f dash; derivative /dæʃ/ /dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f”x f double-dash; second derivative /’dʌbl dæʃ/ /’sekənd dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f”'(x) f triple-dash; f treble-dash; third derivative /’trɪpl dæʃ/ / trebl dæʃ/ /θɜ:d dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f(4) f four; fourth derivative /fɔːθ dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
partial derivative, delta /paːʃəl dɪ’rɪvətɪv/ /deltə/
integral /’ɪntɪgrəl/
sum /sʌm/
w.r.t. with respect to /wɪð ‘rɪspekt/
log log /lɒg/
logx log to the base 2 of x /lɒg tə ðə beɪs tu: əv eks/
therefore /’ðɛəfɔː/
because /bɪ’kɒz/
gives, leads to, approaches /gɪvz/ /li:dz tʊ/ /əprəʊʧəz/
/ per /pɜ:/
belongs to; a member of;  an element of /bɪ’lɒŋz/ /’membə/ /’elɪmənt/
does not belong to; is not a member of; is not an element of /nɒt bɪ’lɒŋ/ /nɒt ə ‘membə/ /nɒt ən ‘elɪmənt/
contained in;  a proper subset of /kən’teɪnd ɪn/ /’prɒpə ‘sʌbset/
contained in; subset /’sʌbset/
intersection /’ɪntəsekʃən/
union /’juːnɪən/
for all /fə rɔ:l/
cos x cos x; cosine x /kɒz/
sin x sine x /saɪn/
tan x tangent x /tan/
cosec x cosec x /’kəʊsek/
sinh x shine x /’ʃaɪn/
cosh x cosh x /’kɒʃ/
tanh x than x /θæn/
|x| mod x; modulus x /mɒd/ /’mɒdjʊləs/
degrees Centigrade /dɪ’gri:z ‘sentɪgreɪd/
degrees Fahrenheit /dɪ’gri:z ‘færənhaɪt/
°K degrees Kelvin /dɪ’gri:z ‘kelvɪn/
0°K, –273.15 °C absolute zero /absəlu:t zi:rəʊ/
mm millimetre /’mɪlɪmiːtə/
cm centimetre /’sentɪmiːtə/
cc, cm³ cubic centimetre, centimetre cubed /’kjuːbɪk ‘sentɪmiːtə/ /’sentɪmiːtə ‘kju:bd/
m metre /’miːtə/
km kilometre /kɪ’lɒmɪtə/
mg milligram /’mɪlɪgræm/
g gram /græm/
kg kilogram /’kɪləgræm/
AC A.C. /eɪ si:/
DC D.C. /di: si:/

^

Examples

x + 1 x plus one
x -1 x minus one
x ± 1 x plus or minus one
xy x y;  x times y; x multiplied by y
(x — y)(x + y)  x minus y, x plus y
x/y x over y;  x divided by y;
x ÷ y x divided by y
x = 5 x equals 5;  x is equal to 5
x ≈ y x is approximately equal to y
x ≡ y x is equivalent to y;  x is identical with y
x ≠ y x is not equal to y
x > y  x is greater than y
x < y  x is less than y
x ≥ y x is greater than or equal to y
x ≤ y x is less than or equal to y
0 < x < 1 zero is less than x is less than 1; x is greater than zero and less than 1
0 ≤ x ≤ 1 zero is less than or equal to x is less than or equal to 1; x is greater than or equal to zero and less than or equal to 1
x squared
x cubed
x4 x to the fourth;  x to the power four
xn x to the n; x to the nth;  x to the power n
x-n x to the minus n;  x to the power of minus n
root x; square root x; the square root of x
the cube root of x
the fourth root of x
the nth root of x
(x + y)² x plus y all squared
(x/y)² x over y all squared
n! n factorial; factorial n
x% x percent
infinity
x ∝ y x varies as y; x is (directly) proportional to y
x ∝ 1/y x varies as one over y; x is indirectly proportional to y
x dot
x double dot
f(x) fx f of x; the function of x
f'(x) f dash x; the (first) derivative of with respect to x
f”x f double-dash x; the second derivative of f with respect to x
f”'(x) f triple-dash x; f treble-dash x; the third derivative of f with respect to x
f(4) f four x; the fourth derivative of f with respect to x
∂v the partial derivative of v
∂v
∂θ
delta v by delta theta, the partial derivative of v with respect to θ
²v
∂θ²
delta two v by delta theta squared; the second partial derivative of v with respect to θ
dv the derivative of v
dv
d v by d theta, the derivative of v with respect to theta
d²v
²
d 2 v by d theta squared, the second derivative of v with respect to theta,
integral
integral integral from zero to infinity
sum
the sum from i equals 1 to n
w.r.t. with respect to
logey log to the base e of y; log y to the base e; natural log (of) y
therefore
because
gives, approaches
Δx → 0 delta x approaches zero
lim
Δx→0
the limit as delta x approaches zero, the limit as delta x tends to zero
Lt
Δx→0
the limit as delta x approaches zero, the limit as delta x tends to zero
m/sec metres per second
x ∈ A x belongs to A; x is a member of A; x is an element of A
x∉ A x does not belong to A; x is not  a member of A; x is not an element of A
A⊂ B A is contained in B; A is a proper subset of B
A ⊆ B A is contained in B; A is a subset of B
A ⋂ B A intersection B
A ⋃ B A union B
cos x cos x; cosine x
sin x sine x
tan x tangent x, tan x
cosec x cosec x
sinh x shine x
cosh x cosh x
tanh x than x
|x| mod x; modulus x
18 ℃ eighteen degrees Centigrade
70 ℉ seventy degrees Fahrenheit

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Lằng nhằng với đại từ chỉ người/nhân xưng

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The correct use of personal pronouns is one of the areas of English usage that cause most difficulty. I, he, she, we, and they are known as subjective personal pronouns because they are used as the subject of a sentence, often coming in front of the verb:

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Có nên dùng phủ định kép không?

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Xem thêm bài: Ôi, ngữ pháp! Đến dân bản ngữ cũng còn ỏm tỏi với nhau [2]


 

A double negative uses two negative words (in bold below) in the same clause to express a single negative idea:

We didn’t see nothing. [ = We saw nothing.]

She never danced with nobody. [ = She didn’t dance with anybody.]

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Có nên dùng phó từ để “phá” động từ nguyên thể?

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Xem thêm bài: Ôi, ngữ pháp! Đến dân bản ngữ cũng còn ỏm tỏi với nhau [2]


What are split infinitives?

Split infinitives happen when you put an adverb between to and a verb, for example:

She used to secretly admire him.

You have to really watch him.

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Một số trường hợp dùng giới từ ở cuối câu

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Xem thêm bài: Ôi, ngữ pháp! Đến dân bản ngữ cũng còn ỏm tỏi với nhau [2]


 

Were you taught that a preposition should never be placed at the end of a sentence? There are times when it would be rather awkward to organize a sentence in a way that would avoid doing this, for example:

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Tránh lỗi “lộn lèo” – Misplaced modifiers [1]

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(Xem thêm bài: “Tránh lỗi lộn lèo – Dangling modifier [2]“)

Có nhiều định nghĩa và cách phân loại khác nhau về misplaced và dangling modifier. Chỉ cần hiểu đâu là modifier, nó bổ nghĩa cho yếu tố nào trong câu, và đặt nó đúng chỗ là ổn.


Misplaced Modifiers

A misplaced modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that does not clearly relate to what it is intended to modify. In other words, a misplaced modifier makes the meaning of a sentence ambiguous or wrong.

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Tại sao nên dùng tiếng Anh tiêu chuẩn – standard English

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Standard English is the type of English that’s suitable for use in every type of written or spoken situation. The majority of words in English dictionaries and thesauruses are part of standard English.

The main advantage of using standard English is that it helps you to get your message across clearly and effectively, and to the widest range of people. It’s also more permanent than some other forms of language, such as slang, which often go out of fashion from one generation to the next.

Một số từ vựng “quá đát” trong tiếng Anh

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Some words that were common in the past are no longer in ordinary use but remain in our stock of words. Many dictionaries divide this type of vocabulary into two categories.

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Có nên dùng tiếng Anh “văn vẻ”?

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Some words are found mainly in literature and poetry that is written in a grand or elevated style. Today, you also find this type of language used in the media, where it tends to be used to create a dramatic effect. Here are some examples of literary vocabulary:

standard English literary
kill slay
enemy foe
apart asunder
beautiful beauteous
die perish

It’s best to avoid this type of language in everyday contexts. It can sound self-conscious or pretentious and it’s likely to distract a reader or listener from what you trying to say.

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Cách viết thư mời và trả lời thư mời – Writing invitation letters

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If you are sending a formal invitation, for example to a wedding or other important social occasion, you should use a style of address written in the third person (i.e. using your surname and the pronouns ‘they’ or ‘their’ rather than ‘I’, ‘we’, or ‘our’). Include full details of where and when the event is taking place and who the person invited should reply to.

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Cách viết thư khiếu nại – Writing a letter of complaint

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If you are writing a letter of complaint, here are some dos and don’ts that can help you get the right outcome:

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Cách viết báo cáo bằng tiếng Anh

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Clip by Massey University on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


 

Writing a report will typically involve collecting evidence or information about a particular issue or initiative, evaluating that information, and presenting the findings in an objective way. Most reports also offer recommendations for discussion or future action.

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Cách viết thư tín bằng tiếng Anh – Writing a business letter

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When writing an official business letter, it’s important to keep your tone and language relatively formal. Note that ‘formal’ doesn’t mean pompous or obscure: you should use words with which you are familiar yourself and which you can reasonably expect the letter’s recipient to understand.

You should also avoid technical phrases or jargon, particularly abbreviations, unless you are certain that the person you are writing to will understand them.

See more below:

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Cách viết thư xin việc – Writing job applications [2]

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Employers may receive hundreds of applications for a job, so it’s vital to make sure that the letter or e-mail you send with your CV/résumé creates the right impression. It’s your opportunity to say why you want the job and to present yourself as a candidate for the post in a way that impresses a prospective employer and makes you stand out as a prospective employee.

See more below:

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Cách viết CV bằng tiếng Anh – CV writing etiquitte [3]

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Before beginning to draft your CV/résumé, read the advert carefully so that you are clear about the specific requirements of the job you’re applying for. It’s important to tailor both your application letter and the CV/résumé to the job in question, focusing on qualifications and experience that are particularly relevant.

 

Dos and Don’ts

Here are some general points to bear in mind when preparing your CV/résumé:

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Dùng “cannot” hay “can not”

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Both cannot and can not are acceptable spellings, but the first is much more usual. You would use can not when the ‘not’ forms part of another construction such as ‘not only’. For example:

These green industries can not only create more jobs, but also promote sustainable development of the land.

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Có từ nào chỉ “con bò”, chứ không hẳn “con bò đực” hay “con bò cái”, không?

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The truth is that there is no noun in general use that refers equally to a cow or a bull.

Zoologists use two terms. The first is ‘ox’, which is often restricted to animals of the genus Bos (i.e. the wild cattle – gaur, banteng, yak, aurochs, and kouprey – as well as domestic cattle). In popular use, though, the word ‘ox’ often refers to a castrated male animal, so that isn’t a perfect solution. The second zoological term is ‘bovine’,  which is used as a noun to refer to any animal of the wider group that comprises cattle, buffaloes, and bison. But this would be a strange choice in most general contexts.

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Cách giao tiếp lịch sự: Năm quy tắc quan trọng

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Warmup:

Tại hội nghị quốc tế phụ nữ, đại biểu của Mỹ đứng lên phát biểu:

– Như hội nghị lần trước, chúng ta đã nhất trí cần phải quyết liệt hơn với những ông chồng. Sau khi từ hội nghị trở về, tôi đã nói với chồng tôi rằng từ nay tôi sẽ không nấu nướng gì nữa, mà anh ta sẽ phải tự lo. Ngày thứ nhất, tôi không thấy gì. Ngày thứ 2, tôi vẫn không thấy gì. Nhưng tới ngày thứ 3, chồng tôi đã chịu vào bếp và hôm đó, anh ấy đã nấu một bữa tối ngon tuyệt.

Cả hội nghị vỗ tay.

Đến lượt đại biểu của Pháp đứng lên phát biểu:

– Sau khi từ hội nghị trở về, tôi nói với chồng tôi rằng tôi sẽ không lo việc giặt giũ nữa, anh ta sẽ phải tự lo. Ngày thứ nhất, tôi không thấy gì. Ngày thứ 2, tôi vẫn không… thấy gì. Nhưng tới ngày thứ 3, chồng tôi đã chịu mang áo quần đi giặt, và anh ấy không chỉ giặt đồ của mình mà còn giặt đồ của cả tôi nữa.

Cả hội nghị lại vỗ tay.

Đến lượt đại biểu Việt Nam đứng lên:

– Sau khi từ hội nghị trở về, tôi nói với chồng tôi rằng từ nay tôi sẽ không đi chợ nữa, mà anh ta sẽ phải tự lo. Ngày thứ nhất, tôi không thấy gì. Ngày thứ 2, tôi vẫn không thấy gì. Nhưng tới ngày thứ 3 , tôi đã bắt đầu nhìn thấy lại được một chút khi 2 mắt của tôi đã bớt sưng.


This blog post by Macmillan Dictionary is about how hedging and indirectness in English can be used to establish a respectful and polite relationship between speakers. This is particularly relevant in business negotiations in which subtle changes in tone can have an effect on the rapport between the counterparts, which in turn affects the outcome of the meeting.

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