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Tag Archives: luyện nói

Phép ẩn dụ – metaphor – trong tiếng Anh

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Warm-up:

Cô gái đi học trên thành phố, nửa đêm nhận được tin nhắn: “Chào em, mình làm quen được không? Em có người yêu chưa?”
– Em có rồi anh ạ!
– Thế á, cha mày đây, sớm mai bắt xe về quê ngay họp gia đình chuyện này!
Hôm sau cô gái nhất quyết không về, nửa đêm lại có tin nhắn:
– Anh phải làm sao để được làm bạn em? Cho phép anh làm quen nhá! Em có người yêu chưa?
– Em chưa!
– Em làm anh thất vọng quá, một phép thử đơn giản là biết được lòng nhau ngay, mình chia tay thôi!
– Ôi em xin lỗi, em tưởng ông già em, cho e một lời giải thích.
– Giải thích gì? Ông già mày đây, mai không về quê thì đừng về nữa! Gọi cả thằng đó về cho tao!


Metaphor

“All the world’s a stage,
And all the men and women merely players
They have their exits and their entrances”
 -William Shakespeare

metaphor is a figure of speech that says that one thing is another different thing. This allows us to use fewer words and forces the reader or listener to find the similarities.

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Thư “rãn” tý với trò nói lái – Spoonerisms

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Spoonerisms are words or phrases in which letters or syllables get swapped. This often happens accidentally in slips of the tongue (or tips of the slung as Spoonerisms are often affectionately called!).

See more below:

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Lựa lời mà nói [2] – Bias in language

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Xem thêm bài: Lựa lời mà nói [1] – Bias in language

Bias appears in language when a writer or speaker uses language in a way that stereotypes or excludes on the basis of race, ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual orientation, physical capabilities, etc. Read the following sample sentence:

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Từ và cụm từ Latin và Hy Lạp thông dụng trong tiếng Anh

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Clip on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


Xem thêm bài: Cách đọc chữ cái Hy Lạp thông dụng bằng tiếng Anh

Even though Latin is considered a dead language (no country officially speaks it), its influence upon other languages makes it still important. Latin words and expressions are present in virtually all the languages around the world, as well as on different scientific and academic fields.

Below you will find a list with the most used and important Latin words and expressions, enjoy!

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Ôi! ngữ pháp… ! Đến dân bản ngữ cũng còn ỏm tỏi với nhau [1]

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Xem thêm bài: Ôi, ngữ pháp! Đến dân bản ngữ cũng còn ỏm tỏi với nhau [2]


1. Never split an infinitive.

It isn’t wise to always ignore this fallacious rule against dividing the elements of the verb phrase “to (verb)” with an adverb, but to blindly follow it is to prohibit pleasing turns of phrase — one of the best known of which is from the introductory voice-over from all the Star Trek television series: “to boldly go where no one has gone before.” (The original series, produced before the more recent sensitivity to gender bias, put it “no man.”)

See more below:

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25 lỗi lính rất kỳ cựu cũng có thể mắc trong sử dụng tiếng Anh

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List of common mistakes by very advanced learners.

See below:

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35 lỗi lính kỳ cựu cũng mắc trong sử dụng tiếng Anh

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List of common mistakes by advanced learners:

See below:

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35 lỗi lính hạng trung thường mắc trong sử dụng tiếng Anh

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List of common mistakes by intermediate learners:

See below:

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35 lỗi lính tò te thường mắc trong sử dụng tiếng Anh

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List of common mistakes by beginners:

See below:

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Vốn từ tiếng Anh bao nhiêu thì đủ xài?

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Clip on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


 

How many words do you need to know in English? This is a very common question and it varies depending on your goal.

  1. There are roughly 100,000 word-families in the English language.
  2. A native English speaking person knows between 10,000 (uneducated) to 20,000 (educated) word families.
  3. Professor Paul Nation found that a person needs to know 8,000-9,000 word families to enjoy reading a book.
  4. Studying heritage language learners reveal that a person with a vocabulary size of 2,500 passive word-families and 2,000 active word-families can speak a language fluently.

See more below:

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Tại sao cần hiểu và dùng đúng tổ hợp từ trong tiếng Anh (collocation)

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Clip on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


[Xem thêm bài: Tổ hợp từ – Collocation -trong tiếng Anh]

What is a collocation?

A collocation is a group of words that usually go together. For example, in English, we usually say ‘heavy rain’. It’s correct grammatically to say ‘strong rain’ or ‘big rain’, but both of these sound completely strange. A native English speaker would never say ‘big rain’. If you use the normal collocation (‘heavy rain’) your English will sound a lot better and more natural and it will be easier for native speakers to understand you. Collocations are very, very important.

See more below:

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Trọng âm câu – sentence stress – yếu tố cực kỳ quan trọng trong nói tiếng Anh

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Clip on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


Xem thêm bài: Trọng âm từ – yếu tố vô cùng quan trọng khi nói tiếng Anh


Sentence Stress in English

Sentence stress is the music of spoken English. Like word stress, sentence stress can help you to understand spoken English, especially when spoken fast.

Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or “beat”. You remember that word stress is accent on one syllable within a word. Sentence stress is accent on certain words within a sentence.

Most sentences have two types of word:

  • content words
  • structure words

See more below:

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Trọng âm từ – Word stress – yếu tố vô cùng quan trọng khi nói tiếng Anh

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Clip by Rachel’s English on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


Xem thêm bài: Trọng âm câu – sentence stress – yếu tố cực kỳ quan trọng trong nói tiếng Anh


 

Word stress is your magic key to understanding spoken English. Native speakers of English use word stress naturally. Word stress is so natural for them that they don’t even know they use it. Non-native speakers who speak English to native speakers without using word stress, encounter two problems:

  1. They find it difficult to understand native speakers, especially those speaking fast.
  2. The native speakers may find it difficult to understand them.

See more below:

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Lời khuyên về ngữ điệu và tốc độ khi nói tiếng Anh – Intonation and Speed of speaking English

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Clip by Rachel’s English on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


Speed of speaking

A common mistake of people who obtain English fluency with improper pronunciation and intonation is the speed in which they speak. Because they do not have perfect pronunciation and intonation, it is difficult to understand people who speak too fast. This is the biggest problem I have seen from people who gain confidence in speaking.

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Một số lời khuyên luyện nói tiếng Anh – Tips on English speaking

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Julian’s clip on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


[No advice works, if it ever does, for all. So sleep on it before picking any, inclusive :).]

1. Don’t study grammar too much

This rule might sound strange to many ESL students, but it is one of the most important rules. If you want to pass examinations, then study grammar. However, if you want to become fluent in English, then you should try to learn English without studying the grammar.

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100 lời khuyên cho người học tiếng Anh

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Bài viết của cô Hester đăng trên http://www.langports.com/

Một số lời khuyên dành cho người học tiếng Anh. Không hẳn đã đúng cả, nhưng cũng rất bổ ích. Cảm ơn Hester!

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Một số thành ngữ thông dụng trong tiếng Anh – Idioms

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Increase your vocabulary and speak more natural English by studying the idioms and expressions below. These are some of the most common expressions in English. Study the example sentences which show how idioms are used in context when you speak English. Have fun!

See the idioms below:

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Một số thành ngữ thông dụng về thể thao

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Clip by English Lessons with Alex (engVid AlexESLvid) on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


 

Heather, a trainer at the school, has written about her favourite football team and sporting idioms.

“Having fretted (worried) about my football team, the mighty (strong and powerful) Chelsea, potentially not winning any silverware (cups or trophies) this season, I was very happy to spend the sunniest day so far this year watching Frank (Lampard) score the winning goal against Everton in the F.A. Cup final. I love sport, none more than football, which started me thinking about how many sporting idioms we have in English. Although there are idioms that originate from a variety of sports, many used in the UK are from boxing, football, cricket, golf and horseracing.”

See if you can guess the meanings of the idioms below before you read the explanation.

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Hãy nói tiếng Anh một cách “tự nhiên” nhất – Speak natural English

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Clip by Benjamin’s English Classes (engVid) on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


 

Most students and teachers spend a lot of time and effort correcting mistakes.  I’m sure you agree that this is an important part of the language-learning process.  However, it’s also important to improve your English by using the words and phrases which native speakers actually use.  So, in this language tip I’m going to show you how to make your English more ‘English’!

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Cách đọc một số ký hiệu và công thức hóa học phổ biến bằng tiếng Anh

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Clip by David Newman on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


Symbols

Symbol Name Pronunciation
Ac Actinium /ækt’ɪnɪəm/
Ag Silver /’sɪlvə/
Al Aluminium /æljʊ’mɪnɪəm/
Am Americium /əmə’risɪəm/
Ar Argon /’ɑːgɒn/
As Arsenic /’ɑːsnɪk/
At Astatine /’æstəti:n/
Au Gold /’gəʊld/
B Boron /’bɔːrɒn/
Ba Barium /ˈbəɛrɪəm/
Be Beryllium /bəˈrɪlɪəm/
Bh Bohrium ˈbɔ:rɪəm/
Bi Bismuth /ˈbɪzməθ/
Bk Berkelium /ˈbɜ:klɪəm/
Br Bromine /ˈbrəʊmiːn/
C Carbon /ˈkɑ:bən/
Ca Calcium /ˈkælsɪəm/
Cd Cadmium /ˈkælmɪəm/
Ce Cerium /ˈsi:rɪəm/
Cf Californium /kælɪˈfɔ:nɪəm/
Cl Chlorine /ˈklɔ:riːn/
Cm Curium /ˈkjuːrɪəm/
Co Cobalt /ˈkəʊbɒlt/
Cr Chromium /ˈkrəʊmɪəm/
Cs Caesium /ˈsiːzɪəm/
Cu Copper /ˈkɒpə/
Db Dubnium /ˈdʌbnɪəm/
Ds Darmstadtium /dɑ:mˈstætɪəm/
Dy Dysprosium /dɪsˈprəʊzɪəm/
Er Erbium /ˈɜ:bɪəm/
Es Einsteinium /aɪnˈstaɪnɪəm/
Eu Europium /ju:ˈrəʊpɪəm/
F Fluorine /ˈflʊəriːn/
Fe Iron /ˈaɪən/
Fm Fermium /ˈfɜ:mɪəm/
Fr Francium /ˈfrænsɪəm/
Ga Gallium /ˈgælɪəm/
Gd Gadolinium /gædəˈlɪnɪəm/
Ge Germanium /dʒəˈmeɪnɪəm/
H Hydrogen /ˈhaɪdrəʤən/
He Helium /ˈhi:lɪəm/
Hf Hafnium /ˈhæfnɪəm/
Hg Mercury /ˈmɜ:kjʊrɪ/
Ho Holmium /ˈhəʊlmɪəm/
Hs Hassium /ˈhæsɪəm/
I Iodine /ˈaɪədiːn/
In Indium /ˈɪndɪəm/
Ir Iridium /ɪˈrɪdɪəm/
K Potassium /pəˈtæsɪəm/
Kr Krypton /ˈkrɪptən/
La Lanthanum /ˈlænθənəm/
Li Lithium /ˈlɪθɪəm/
Lr Lawrencium /ləˈrensɪəm/
Lu Lutetium /ljuːˈtiːʃəm/
Md Mendelevium /mendəˈlɪvɪəm/
Mg Magnesium /mægˈniːzɪəm/
Mn Manganese /ˈmæŋgəniːz/
Mo Molybdenum /məˈlɪbdənəm/
Mt Meitnerium /maɪtˈnɜ:rɪəm/
N Nitrogen /ˈnaɪtrədʒən/
Na Sodium /ˈsəʊdɪəm/
Nb Niobium /naɪˈəʊbɪəm/
Nd Neodymium /niːəʊˈdɪmɪəm/
Ne Neon /ˈniːɒn/
Ni Nickel /ˈnɪkəl/
No Nobelium /nəʊˈbiːlɪəm/
Np Neptunium /nepˈtjuːnɪəm/
O Oxygen /ˈɒksɪdʒən/
Os Osmium /ˈɒzmɪəm/
P Phosphorus /ˈfɒsfərəs/
Pa Protactinium /prəʊtækˈtɪnɪəm/
Pb Lead /ˈled/
Pd Palladium /pəˈleɪdɪəm/
Pm Promethium /prəˈmiːθɪəm/
Po Polonium /pəˈləʊnɪəm/
Pr Praseodymium /preɪzɪəʊˈdɪmɪəm/
Pt Platinum /ˈplætɪnəm/
Pu Plutonium /pluːˈtəʊnɪəm/
Ra Radium /ˈreɪdɪəm/
Rb Rubidium /ruːˈbɪdɪəm/
Re Rhenium /ˈriːnɪəm/
Rf Rutherfordium /rʌðəˈfɔ:dɪəm/
Rg Roentgenium /rɒntˈgenɪəm/
Rh Rhodium /ˈrəʊdɪəm/
Rn Radon /ˈreɪdɒn/
Ru Ruthenium /ruːˈθiːnɪəm/
S Sulphur /ˈsʌlfə/
Sb Antimony /’æntɪmənɪ/
Sc Scandium /ˈskændɪəm/
Se Selenium /səˈliːnɪəm/
Sg Seaborgium /siːˈbɔ:gɪəm/
Si Silicon /ˈsɪlɪkən/
Sm Samarium /səˈmɛərɪəm/
Sn Tin /ˈtɪn/
Sr Strontium /ˈstrɒntɪəm/
Ta Tantalum /ˈtæntələm/
Tb Terbium /ˈtɜ:bɪəm/
Tc Technetium /tekˈniːʃɪəm/
Te Tellurium /təˈlʊərɪəm/
Th Thorium /ˈθɔ:rɪəm/
Ti Titanium /tɪˈteɪnɪəm/
Tl Thallium /ˈθælɪəm/
Tm Thulium /ˈθjuːlɪəm/
U Uranium /jʊˈreɪnɪəm/
Uub Ununbium /juːˈnʌnbɪəm/
Uuh Ununhexium /ˌjuːnənˈheksɪəm/
Uuo Ununoctium ˌ/juːnəˈnɒktɪəm/
Uup Ununpentium /juːnənˈpentɪəm/
Uuq Ununquadium /juːnənˈkwɒdɪəm/
Uut Ununtrium /juːˈnʌntrɪəm/
V Vanadium /vəˈneɪdɪəm/
W Tungsten /ˈtʌŋstən/
Xe Xenon /ˈzenɒn/
Y Yttrium /ˈɪtrɪəm/
Yb Ytterbium /ɪˈtɜːbɪəm/
Zn Zinc /ˈzɪŋk/
Zr Zirconium /zɜːˈkəʊnɪəm/

 

Formulae

 

CO2 Carbon dioxide
CO Carbon monoxide
NO2 Nitrogen dioxide
N2O Dinitrogen oxide
NO Nitrogen oxide
N2O4 Dinitrogen tetroxide
SO2 Sulphur dioxide
SO3 Sulphur trioxide
H2SO4 Suphuric acid
HCl Hydrochloric acid
HNO3 Nitric acid
PCl5 Phosphorus pentachloride

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Cách đọc phản ứng hóa học bằng tiếng Anh

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Reaction Reading by Elementary Entities (Formula Units) Reading by Mole (NA of elementary entities or formula units)
2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O 2 molecules of hydrogen react with 1 molecule of oxygen to form 2 molecules of water 2 moles of hydrogen react with 1 mole

of oxygen to form 2 moles of water

CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O 1 molecule of methane reacts with 2 molecules of oxygen to form 1 molecule of carbon dioxide and 2 molecules of water 1 mole of methane reacts with 2 moles of oxygen to form 1 mole of carbon dioxide and 2 moles of water
2 Na + 2 H2O → 2 NaOH + H2 2 atoms of sodium react with 2 molecules of water to form 2 formula units of sodium hydroxide and 1 molecule of hydrogen 2 moles of sodium reacts with 2 moles of water to form 2 moles of sodium hydroxide and 1 mole of hydrogen
Ca + 2 H2O → Ca(OH)2 + H2 1 atom of calcium reacts with 2 molecules of water to form 1 formula unit of calcium hydroxide and 1 molecule of hydrogen 1 mole of calcium reacts with 2 moles of water to form 1 mole of calcium hydroxide and 1 mole of hydrogen
2 NaBr + Cl2 → 2 NaCl + Br2 2 formula units of sodium bromide react with 1 molecule of chlorine to form 2 formula units of sodium chloride and 1 molecule of bromine 2 moles of sodium bromide react with 1 mole of chlorine to form 2 moles of sodium chloride and 1 mole of bromine
AgNO3 + KCl → AgCl↓ + KNO3 1 formula unit of silver nitrate reacts with 1 formula unit of potassium chloride to form 1 formula unit of silver chloride (precipitate) and 1 formula unit of potassium nitrate 1 mole of silver nitrate reacts with 1 mole of potassium chloride to form 1 mole of silver chloride (precipitate) and 1 mole of potassium nitrate
2AgNO3 +CaBr2→2 AgBr↓+ Ca(NO3)2 2 formula units of silver nitrate react with 1 formula unit of calcium bromide to form 2 formula units of silver bromide (precipitate) and 1 formula unit of calcium nitrate 2 moles of silver nitrate react with 1 mole of calcium bromide to form 2 moles of silver bromide (precipitate) and 1 mole of calcium nitrate
Na2CO3 + 2HCl→2NaCl + CO2↑ +H2O 1 formula unit of sodium carbonate reacts with 2 formula units of hydrochloric acid to form 2 formula units of sodium chloride, 1 molecule of carbon dioxide (gas), and 1 molecule of water 1 mole of sodium carbonate reacts with 2 moles of hydrochloric acid to form 2 moles of sodium chloride, 1 mole of carbon dioxide (gas), and 1 mole of water

 

Reaction Reading by Mole (NA of elementary entities or formula units) Reading by Mass (Molar mass of each substance is needed)
2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O 2 moles of hydrogen react with 1 mole of oxygen to form 2 moles of water 4 g of hydrogen react with 32 g of oxygen to form 36 g of water
CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O 1 mole of methane reacts with 2 moles of oxygen to form 1 mole of carbon dioxide and 2 moles of water 16 g of methane react with 32 g of oxygen to form 44 g of carbon dioxide and 36 g of water
2 Na + 2 H2O → 2 NaOH + H2 2 moles of sodium reacts with 2 moles of water to form 2 moles of sodium hydroxide and 1 mole of hydrogen 46 g of sodium react with 36 g of water to form

80 g of sodium hydroxide and 2 g of hydrogen

Ca + 2 H2O → Ca(OH)2 + H2 1 mole of calcium reacts with 2 moles of water to form 1 mole of calcium hydroxide and 1 mole of hydrogen 40 g of calcium react with 36 g of water to form

74 g of calcium hydroxide and 2 g of hydrogen

2 NaBr + Cl2 → 2 NaCl + Br2 2 moles of sodium bromide react with 1 mole of chlorine to form 2 moles of sodium chloride and 1 mole of bromine 206 g of sodium bromide react with 71 g of chlorine to form 117 g of sodium chloride and 160 g of bromine
AgNO3 + KCl → AgCl↓ + KNO3 1 mole of silver nitrate reacts with 1 mole of potassium chloride to form 1 mole of silver chloride (precipitate) and 1 mole of potassium nitrate 170 g of silver nitrate react with 74 g of potassium chloride to form 143 g of silver chloride (precipitate) and 101 g of potassium nitrate
2AgNO3 +CaBr2→2 AgBr↓+ Ca(NO3)2 2 moles of silver nitrate react with 1 mole of calcium bromide to form 2 moles of silver bromide (precipitate) and 1 mole of calcium nitrate 240 g of silver nitrate react with 200 g of calcium bromide to form 356 g of silver bromide (precipitate) and 184 of calcium nitrate
Na2CO3 + 2HCl→2NaCl + CO2↑ +H2O 1 mole of sodium carbonate reacts with 2 moles of hydrochloric acid to form 2 moles of sodium chloride, 1 mole of carbon dioxide (gas), and 1 mole of water 106 g of sodium carbonate reacts with 73 g of hydrochloric acid to form 117 g of sodium chloride, 44 g of carbon dioxide (gas), and 18 g of water

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Cốt yếu trong phát âm tiếng Anh – English pronunciation essentials

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Clip rất hữu ích về phát âm tiếng Anh

Clip by Crown Academy of English on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


The pronunciations given are those in use among educated urban speakers of standard English in Britain and the United States. While avoiding strongly regionally or socially marked forms, they are intended to include the most common variants for each word. The keywords given are to be understood as pronounced in such speech.

This key is to the pronunciations given in revised entries. For pronunciations in unrevised entries, see this key.

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Cách đọc phân số, thập phân, dấu mũ, số đếm, số thứ tự trong tiếng Anh

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Fractions

½ a half /ə ‘hɑ:f/
¼ a quarter /ə ‘kwɔːtə/
¾ three quarters /θriː ‘kwɔːtəz/
a third /ə ‘θɜ:d/
two thirds /tu: ‘θɜ:dz/
a fifth /ə ‘fɪfθ/
two fifths /tu: ‘fɪfθs/
three fifths /θriː ‘fɪfθs/
four fifths /fɔː ‘fɪfθs/
a sixth /ə ‘sɪksθ/
five sixths /faɪv ‘sɪksθs/
an eighth /ən ‘eɪtθ/
three eighths /θriː ‘eɪtθs/
five eighths /faɪv ‘eɪtθs/
seven eighths /sevən ‘eɪtθs/

 

Decimal Fractions

0.1 nought point one /nɔ:t pɔɪnt wʌn/
0.01 nought point oh one /nɔ:t pɔɪnt əʊ wʌn/
0.0001 nought point oh oh oh one /ten pɔɪnt əʊ əʊ əʊ wʌn/
1.1 one point one /wʌn pɔɪnt wʌn/
1.2 one point two /wʌn pɔɪnt tu:/
1.23 one point two three /wʌn pɔɪnt tu: θri:/
1.0123 one point oh one two three /wʌn pɔɪnt əʊ wʌn tu: θri:/
10.01 ten point oh one /ten pɔɪnt əʊ wʌn/
21.57 twenty-one point five seven /’twentɪ wʌn pɔɪnt  faɪv ‘sevən/
2.6666666666…. two point six recurring /tu: pɔɪnt  sɪks rɪ’kɜ:rɪŋ/
2.612361236123… two point six one two three recurring /tu: pɔɪnt  sɪks wʌn tu: θri: rɪ’kɜ:rɪŋ/
2.5 million two point five million /tu: pɔɪnt  faɪv ‘mɪljən/

 

SI Units: Prefixes

 

Prefix Symbol 10n Long/Short Scale
yotta (gr. okto – eight) Y 1024 Quadrillion/Septillion
zetta (lat. septem – seven) Z 1021 Trilliard/Sextillion
eksa (gr. ex – six) E 1018 Trillion/Quintillion
peta (gr. penta – five) P 1015 Billiard/Quadrillion
tera (gr. teras – monster) T 1012 Billion/Trillion
giga (gr. gigas – giant) G 109 Milliard/Billion
mega (gr. megas – great) M 106 Million/Million
kilo (gr. khilioi – thousand) k 10³ Thousand/Thousand
hecto (gr. hekaton – hundred) h 10² Hundred/Hundred
deca (gr. deka – ten) da 101 Ten/Ten
100 One/One
decy (lat. decimus – tenth) d 10-1 Tenth/Tenth
centy (lac. centum – hundredth) c 10-2 Hundredth/Hundredth
milli (lac. mille – thousand) m 10-3 Thousandth/Thousandth
mikro (gr. mikros – small) µ 10-6 Millionth/Millionth
nano (gr. nanos – dwarf) n 10-9 Milliardth/Billionth
pico (it. piccolo – small) p 10-12 Billionth/Trillionth
femto (den. femten – fifteen) f 10-15 Billiardth/Quadrillionth
atto (den. atten – eighteen) a 10-18 Trillionth/Quintillionth
zepto (lat. septem – seven) z 10-21 Trilliardth/Sextillionth
yokto (gr. okto – eight) y 10-24 Quadrillionth/Septillionth

 

Cardinal Numbers

1 one /wʌn/
2 two /tu:/
3 three /θri:/
4 four /fɔː/
5 five /faɪv/
6 six /sɪks/
7 seven /’sevən/
8 eight /eɪt/
9 nine /naɪn/
10 ten /ten/
11 eleven /ɪ’levən/
12 twelve /twelv/
13 thirteen /θɜ:’ti:n/
14 fourteen /fɔː’ti:n/
15 fifteen /fɪf’ti:n/
16 sixteen /sɪkst’i:n/
17 seventeen /seven’ti:n/
18 eighteen /eɪ’ti:n/
19 nineteen /naɪn’ti:n/
20 twenty /’twentɪ/
21 twenty-one /twentɪ’wʌn/
22 twenty-two /twentɪ’tu:/
23 twenty-three /twentɪ’θri:/
24 twenty-four /twentɪ’fɔː/
25 twenty-five /twentɪ’faɪv/
26 twenty-six /twentɪ’sɪks/
27 twenty-seven /twentɪ’sevən/
28 twenty-eight /twentɪ’eɪt/
29 twenty-nine /twentɪ’naɪn/
30 thirty /’θɜ:tɪ/
40 forty /’fɔːtɪ/
50 fifty /’fɪftɪ/
60 sixty /’sɪkstɪ/
70 seventy /’sevəntɪ/
80 eighty /’eɪtɪ/
90 ninety /’naɪntɪ/
100 a hundred; one hundred /ə ‘hʌndrəd/ /wʌn ‘hʌndrəd/
101 a hundred and one /ə ‘hʌndrəd ən wʌn/
102 a hundred and two /ə ‘hʌndrəd ən tu:/
110 a hundred and ten /ə ‘hʌndrəd ən ten/
120 a hundred and twenty /ə ‘hʌndrəd ən ‘twentɪ/
200 two hundred /tu: ‘hʌndrəd/
300 three hundred /θri:  ‘hʌndrəd/
400 four hundred /fɔː ‘hʌndrəd/
500 five hundred /faɪv ‘hʌndrəd/
600 six hundred /sɪks ‘hʌndrəd/
700 seven hundred /’sevən ‘hʌndrəd/
800 eight hundred /eɪt ‘hʌndrəd/
900 nine hundred /naɪn ‘hʌndrəd/
1 000 a thousand, one thousand /ə θ’ɑʊzənd/ /wʌn ‘θɑʊzənd/
1 001 a thousand and one /ə ‘θɑʊzənd ən wʌn/
1 010 a thousand and ten /ə ‘θɑʊzənd ən ten/
1 020 a thousand and twenty /ə ‘θɑʊzənd ən ‘twentɪ/
1 100 one thousand, one hunded /wʌn ‘θɑʊzənd wʌn ‘hʌndrəd/
1 101 one thousand, one hundred and one /wʌn ‘θɑʊzənd wʌn ‘hʌndrəd ən wʌn/
1 110 one thousand, one hundred and ten /wʌn ‘θɑʊzənd wʌn ‘hʌndrəd ən ten/
9 999 nine thousand, nine hundred and ninety-nine /naɪn ‘θɑʊzənd naɪn ‘hʌndrəd ən ‘naɪntɪ ‘naɪn/
10 000 ten thousand /ten ‘θɑʊzənd/
15 356 fifteen thousand, three hundred and fifty six /’fɪfti:n ‘θɑʊzənd θri: ‘hʌndrəd ən ‘fɪftɪ sɪks/
100 000 a hundred thousand /ə ‘hʌndrəd ‘θɑʊzənd/
1 000 000 a million /ə ‘mɪljən/
100 000 000 a hundred million /ə ‘hʌndrəd ‘mɪljən/
1 000 000 000 a billion /ə ‘bɪljən/
100 000 000 000 a hundred billion /ə ‘hʌndrəd ‘bɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 a trillion /ə ‘trɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 a quadrillion /ə kwɒdrɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 a quintillian /ə kwɪn’tɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 a sextillion /ə seks’tɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 a septillion /ə sep’tɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 an ocillion /ən ɒkt’tɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 a nonillion /ə nɒn’ɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 a decillion /ə de’sɪljən/

 

Ordinal Numbers

1st first /fɜ:st/
2nd second /’sekənd/
3rd third /θɜ:d/
4th fourth /fɔ:θ/
5th fifth /fɪfθ/
6th sixth /sɪksθ/
7th seventh /’sevənθ/
8th eighth /eɪtθ/
9th ninth /naɪnθ/
10th tenth /tenθ/
11th eleventh /ɪ’levənθ/
12th twelfth /’twelfθ/
13th thirteenth /θɜ:’ti:nθ/
14th fourtheenth /fɔː’ti:nθ/
15th fidteenth /fɪf’ti:nθ/
16th sixteenth /sɪks’ti:nθ/
17th seventeenth /seven’ti:nθ/
18th eighteenth /eɪ’ti:nθ/
19th nineteenth /naɪn’ti:nθ/
20th twentieth /’twentɪəθ/
21st twenty-first /twentɪ’fɜ:st/
22nd twenty-second /twentɪ’sekənd/
23rd twenty-third /twentɪ’θɜ:d/
24th twenty-fourth /twentɪ’fɔ:θ/
25th twenty-fifth /twentɪ’fɪfθ/
26th twenty-sixth /twentɪ’sɪksθ/
27th twenty-seventh /twentɪ’sevənθ/
28th twenty-eighth /twentɪ’eɪtθ/
29th twenty-ninth /twentɪ’naɪnθ/
30th thirtieth /’θɜːtɪəθ/
31st thirty-first /θɜːtɪ’fɜ:st/
40th fortieth /’fɔ:tɪəθ/
50th fiftieth /’fɪftɪəθ/
100th hundredth /’hʌndrədθ/
1 000th thousandth /’θɑʊzəndθ/
1 000 000th miilionth /’mɪljənθ/

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Cách đọc chữ cái Hy Lạp thông dụng bằng tiếng Anh

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Xem thêm bài: Từ và cụm từ Latin và Hy Lạp thông dụng trong tiếng Anh

Greek alphabet

Α α alpha /’ælfə/
Β β beta /’bi:tə/
Γ γ gamma /’gæmə/
Δ δ delta /’deltə/
Ε ε epsilon /’epsilən/
Ζ ζ zeta /’ziːtə/
Η η eta /’iːtə/
Θ θ theta /’θiːtə/
Ι ι iota /aɪ’əʊtə/
Κ κ kappa /’kæpə/
Λ λ lamda /’læmdə/
Μ μ mu /’mjuː/
Ν ν nu /’njuː/
Ξ ξ xi /’ksaɪ/
Ο ο omicron /’əʊmɪkrən/
Π π pi /’paɪ/
Ρ ρς rho /’rəʊ/
Σ σ sigma /’sɪgmə/
Τ τ tau /’tɑʊ/
Υ υ upsilon /’jʊpsɪlən/
Φ φ phi /’faɪ/
Χ χ chi /’kaɪ/
Ψ ψ psi /’psaɪ/
Ω ω omega /’əʊmɪgə/

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Cách đọc ký hiệu toán học và khoa học trong tiếng Anh

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Common pronunciations (in British English – Gimson,1981) of mathematical and scientific symbols are given in the list below.

Symbols

+ plus /’plʌs/
minus /’maɪnəs/
± plus or minus /’plʌs  ɔ:  ‘maɪnəs/
x multiplied by /’mʌltɪplaɪd baɪ/
/ over; divided by /’əʊvə/ /dɪ’vaɪdəd/
÷ divided /dɪ’vaɪdəd/
= equals /’ɪ:kwəlz/
approximately, similar /ə’prɒksɪmətlɪ/ /’sɪmɪlə tʊ/
equivalent to; identical /ɪk’wɪvələnt tʊ/ /aɪ’dentɪkl tʊ/
not equal to /’nɒt ‘iːkwəl tʊ/
> greater than /’greɪtə ðən/
< less than /’les ðən/
greater than or equal to /’greɪtə ðən ər ‘iːkwəl tʊ/
less than or equal to /’les ðən ər’ iːkwəl tʊ/
not greater than /’nɒt ‘greɪtə ðən/
not less than /’nɒt ‘les ðən/
much greater than /’mʌʧ ‘greɪtə ðən/
much less than /’mʌʧ ‘les ðən/
perpendicular to /pɜːpən’dɪkjʊlə tʊ/
∣∣ parallel to /’pærəlel tʊ/
not equivalent to, not identical to /’nɒt ɪk’wɪvələnt tʊ/ /’nɒt aɪ’dentɪkl tʊ/
≄≉ not similar to /’nɒt ‘sɪmɪlə tʊ/
² squared /’skweəd/
³ cubed /’kju:bd/
4 to the fourth;  to the power four /tə ðə ‘fɔːθ/ /te ðə ‘pɑʊə fɔː/
n  to the n; to the nth; to the power n /tə ðɪ en; tə dɪ enθ; tə ðə pɑʊər en/
root; square root /ru:t/ /skweə ru:t/
cube root /kju:b ru:t/
fourth root /fɔːθ ruːt/
! factorial /fæk’tɔːrɪəl/
% percent /pə’sent/
infinity /ɪn’fɪnətɪ/
varies as; proportional to /’vɛərɪz/  /prə’pɔːʃənəl/
˙ dot /dɒt/
¨ double dot /dʌbl dɒt/
: is to, ratio of /reɪʃɪəʊ/
f(x) fx f; function /ef/ /’fʌŋkʃən/
f'(x) f dash; derivative /dæʃ/ /dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f”x f double-dash; second derivative /’dʌbl dæʃ/ /’sekənd dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f”'(x) f triple-dash; f treble-dash; third derivative /’trɪpl dæʃ/ / trebl dæʃ/ /θɜ:d dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f(4) f four; fourth derivative /fɔːθ dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
partial derivative, delta /paːʃəl dɪ’rɪvətɪv/ /deltə/
integral /’ɪntɪgrəl/
sum /sʌm/
w.r.t. with respect to /wɪð ‘rɪspekt/
log log /lɒg/
logx log to the base 2 of x /lɒg tə ðə beɪs tu: əv eks/
therefore /’ðɛəfɔː/
because /bɪ’kɒz/
gives, leads to, approaches /gɪvz/ /li:dz tʊ/ /əprəʊʧəz/
/ per /pɜ:/
belongs to; a member of;  an element of /bɪ’lɒŋz/ /’membə/ /’elɪmənt/
does not belong to; is not a member of; is not an element of /nɒt bɪ’lɒŋ/ /nɒt ə ‘membə/ /nɒt ən ‘elɪmənt/
contained in;  a proper subset of /kən’teɪnd ɪn/ /’prɒpə ‘sʌbset/
contained in; subset /’sʌbset/
intersection /’ɪntəsekʃən/
union /’juːnɪən/
for all /fə rɔ:l/
cos x cos x; cosine x /kɒz/
sin x sine x /saɪn/
tan x tangent x /tan/
cosec x cosec x /’kəʊsek/
sinh x shine x /’ʃaɪn/
cosh x cosh x /’kɒʃ/
tanh x than x /θæn/
|x| mod x; modulus x /mɒd/ /’mɒdjʊləs/
degrees Centigrade /dɪ’gri:z ‘sentɪgreɪd/
degrees Fahrenheit /dɪ’gri:z ‘færənhaɪt/
°K degrees Kelvin /dɪ’gri:z ‘kelvɪn/
0°K, –273.15 °C absolute zero /absəlu:t zi:rəʊ/
mm millimetre /’mɪlɪmiːtə/
cm centimetre /’sentɪmiːtə/
cc, cm³ cubic centimetre, centimetre cubed /’kjuːbɪk ‘sentɪmiːtə/ /’sentɪmiːtə ‘kju:bd/
m metre /’miːtə/
km kilometre /kɪ’lɒmɪtə/
mg milligram /’mɪlɪgræm/
g gram /græm/
kg kilogram /’kɪləgræm/
AC A.C. /eɪ si:/
DC D.C. /di: si:/

^

Examples

x + 1 x plus one
x -1 x minus one
x ± 1 x plus or minus one
xy x y;  x times y; x multiplied by y
(x — y)(x + y)  x minus y, x plus y
x/y x over y;  x divided by y;
x ÷ y x divided by y
x = 5 x equals 5;  x is equal to 5
x ≈ y x is approximately equal to y
x ≡ y x is equivalent to y;  x is identical with y
x ≠ y x is not equal to y
x > y  x is greater than y
x < y  x is less than y
x ≥ y x is greater than or equal to y
x ≤ y x is less than or equal to y
0 < x < 1 zero is less than x is less than 1; x is greater than zero and less than 1
0 ≤ x ≤ 1 zero is less than or equal to x is less than or equal to 1; x is greater than or equal to zero and less than or equal to 1
x squared
x cubed
x4 x to the fourth;  x to the power four
xn x to the n; x to the nth;  x to the power n
x-n x to the minus n;  x to the power of minus n
root x; square root x; the square root of x
the cube root of x
the fourth root of x
the nth root of x
(x + y)² x plus y all squared
(x/y)² x over y all squared
n! n factorial; factorial n
x% x percent
infinity
x ∝ y x varies as y; x is (directly) proportional to y
x ∝ 1/y x varies as one over y; x is indirectly proportional to y
x dot
x double dot
f(x) fx f of x; the function of x
f'(x) f dash x; the (first) derivative of with respect to x
f”x f double-dash x; the second derivative of f with respect to x
f”'(x) f triple-dash x; f treble-dash x; the third derivative of f with respect to x
f(4) f four x; the fourth derivative of f with respect to x
∂v the partial derivative of v
∂v
∂θ
delta v by delta theta, the partial derivative of v with respect to θ
²v
∂θ²
delta two v by delta theta squared; the second partial derivative of v with respect to θ
dv the derivative of v
dv
d v by d theta, the derivative of v with respect to theta
d²v
²
d 2 v by d theta squared, the second derivative of v with respect to theta,
integral
integral integral from zero to infinity
sum
the sum from i equals 1 to n
w.r.t. with respect to
logey log to the base e of y; log y to the base e; natural log (of) y
therefore
because
gives, approaches
Δx → 0 delta x approaches zero
lim
Δx→0
the limit as delta x approaches zero, the limit as delta x tends to zero
Lt
Δx→0
the limit as delta x approaches zero, the limit as delta x tends to zero
m/sec metres per second
x ∈ A x belongs to A; x is a member of A; x is an element of A
x∉ A x does not belong to A; x is not  a member of A; x is not an element of A
A⊂ B A is contained in B; A is a proper subset of B
A ⊆ B A is contained in B; A is a subset of B
A ⋂ B A intersection B
A ⋃ B A union B
cos x cos x; cosine x
sin x sine x
tan x tangent x, tan x
cosec x cosec x
sinh x shine x
cosh x cosh x
tanh x than x
|x| mod x; modulus x
18 ℃ eighteen degrees Centigrade
70 ℉ seventy degrees Fahrenheit

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Cách đọc một số ký hiệu thông dụng trong tiếng Anh

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Xem thêm bài: Cách đọc ký hiệu toán học và khoa học trong tiếng Anh

và bài: Cách đọc một số ký hiệu và công thức hóa học phổ biến bằng tiếng Anh


 

Bài bên dưới là hướng dẫn cách đọc một số ký ký hiệu thông dụng trong tiếng Anh. Rất hữu ích.

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Lằng nhằng với đại từ chỉ người/nhân xưng

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The correct use of personal pronouns is one of the areas of English usage that cause most difficulty. I, he, she, we, and they are known as subjective personal pronouns because they are used as the subject of a sentence, often coming in front of the verb:

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Có nên dùng phủ định kép không?

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Clip by How to Write More Better-er! on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


Xem thêm bài: Ôi, ngữ pháp! Đến dân bản ngữ cũng còn ỏm tỏi với nhau [2]


 

A double negative uses two negative words (in bold below) in the same clause to express a single negative idea:

We didn’t see nothing. [ = We saw nothing.]

She never danced with nobody. [ = She didn’t dance with anybody.]

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Có nên dùng phó từ để “phá” động từ nguyên thể?

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Xem thêm bài: Ôi, ngữ pháp! Đến dân bản ngữ cũng còn ỏm tỏi với nhau [2]


What are split infinitives?

Split infinitives happen when you put an adverb between to and a verb, for example:

She used to secretly admire him.

You have to really watch him.

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Một số trường hợp dùng giới từ ở cuối câu

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Xem thêm bài: Ôi, ngữ pháp! Đến dân bản ngữ cũng còn ỏm tỏi với nhau [2]


 

Were you taught that a preposition should never be placed at the end of a sentence? There are times when it would be rather awkward to organize a sentence in a way that would avoid doing this, for example:

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Tránh lỗi “lộn lèo” – Misplaced modifiers [1]

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(Xem thêm bài: “Tránh lỗi lộn lèo – Dangling modifier [2]“)

Có nhiều định nghĩa và cách phân loại khác nhau về misplaced và dangling modifier. Chỉ cần hiểu đâu là modifier, nó bổ nghĩa cho yếu tố nào trong câu, và đặt nó đúng chỗ là ổn.


Misplaced Modifiers

A misplaced modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that does not clearly relate to what it is intended to modify. In other words, a misplaced modifier makes the meaning of a sentence ambiguous or wrong.

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Tại sao nên dùng tiếng Anh tiêu chuẩn – standard English

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Standard English is the type of English that’s suitable for use in every type of written or spoken situation. The majority of words in English dictionaries and thesauruses are part of standard English.

The main advantage of using standard English is that it helps you to get your message across clearly and effectively, and to the widest range of people. It’s also more permanent than some other forms of language, such as slang, which often go out of fashion from one generation to the next.

Có nên dùng tiếng Anh “văn vẻ”?

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Some words are found mainly in literature and poetry that is written in a grand or elevated style. Today, you also find this type of language used in the media, where it tends to be used to create a dramatic effect. Here are some examples of literary vocabulary:

standard English literary
kill slay
enemy foe
apart asunder
beautiful beauteous
die perish

It’s best to avoid this type of language in everyday contexts. It can sound self-conscious or pretentious and it’s likely to distract a reader or listener from what you trying to say.

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Cách giao tiếp lịch sự: Năm quy tắc quan trọng

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Warmup:

Tại hội nghị quốc tế phụ nữ, đại biểu của Mỹ đứng lên phát biểu:

– Như hội nghị lần trước, chúng ta đã nhất trí cần phải quyết liệt hơn với những ông chồng. Sau khi từ hội nghị trở về, tôi đã nói với chồng tôi rằng từ nay tôi sẽ không nấu nướng gì nữa, mà anh ta sẽ phải tự lo. Ngày thứ nhất, tôi không thấy gì. Ngày thứ 2, tôi vẫn không thấy gì. Nhưng tới ngày thứ 3, chồng tôi đã chịu vào bếp và hôm đó, anh ấy đã nấu một bữa tối ngon tuyệt.

Cả hội nghị vỗ tay.

Đến lượt đại biểu của Pháp đứng lên phát biểu:

– Sau khi từ hội nghị trở về, tôi nói với chồng tôi rằng tôi sẽ không lo việc giặt giũ nữa, anh ta sẽ phải tự lo. Ngày thứ nhất, tôi không thấy gì. Ngày thứ 2, tôi vẫn không… thấy gì. Nhưng tới ngày thứ 3, chồng tôi đã chịu mang áo quần đi giặt, và anh ấy không chỉ giặt đồ của mình mà còn giặt đồ của cả tôi nữa.

Cả hội nghị lại vỗ tay.

Đến lượt đại biểu Việt Nam đứng lên:

– Sau khi từ hội nghị trở về, tôi nói với chồng tôi rằng từ nay tôi sẽ không đi chợ nữa, mà anh ta sẽ phải tự lo. Ngày thứ nhất, tôi không thấy gì. Ngày thứ 2, tôi vẫn không thấy gì. Nhưng tới ngày thứ 3 , tôi đã bắt đầu nhìn thấy lại được một chút khi 2 mắt của tôi đã bớt sưng.


This blog post by Macmillan Dictionary is about how hedging and indirectness in English can be used to establish a respectful and polite relationship between speakers. This is particularly relevant in business negotiations in which subtle changes in tone can have an effect on the rapport between the counterparts, which in turn affects the outcome of the meeting.

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Cách giao tiếp lịch sự: Thể hiện ý không đồng tình

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Clip by Larisa School of Language on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


 

Disagreement is a normal and important part of everyday life, both at work and in our social lives. But how do you sound when you disagree? Some of our students are surprised when we tell them that their style of disagreement is too strong or comes across as rude.

But don’t worry! There are a few neat phrases that you can include in your repertoire to sound more polite when you disagree.

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Cách giao tiếp lịch sự: Yêu cầu và từ chối yêu cầu

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It’s often said that native English speakers use a lot of ‘softeners’ in their language –  those words and phrases which make us sound nicer and more polite, (even if they have very little actual meaning). This week we’re taking a look at softeners and the sort of situations in which we often use them.

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Nguồn gốc thành ngữ “it’s raining cats and dogs”

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In the 1500s, houses in Britain had thatched roofs with thick straw piled high and with no wood underneath. It was the only place for animals to get warm, so all the cats and other small animals lived in the roof. When it rained it became slippery and sometimes the animals would slip and fall off the roof. Hence the saying, “It’s raining cats and dogs”.

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Phân biệt thì Hiện tại hoàn thành và Quá khứ thường

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Warmup:

–  Alô! Con chim nhỏ của anh à?

–  Không! Chim bố đây.

–  Ấy chết! Cháu xin lỗi bác! Bác có khỏe không ạ?

–  Khỏe để đánh nhau với ai?

–  Dạ… cho cháu hỏi Hoài có nhà không ạ?

–  Nó không có nhà thì là dân vô gia cư à?

–  Dạ, dạ… ý cháu là Hoài có ở nhà không ạ?

–  Nếu không thì sao?

–  Thế… Hoài đi đâu ạ?

–  Đến cơ quan rồi.

–  Bác cho cháu số điện thoại của Hoài được không ạ?

–  Nó có nhiều số lắm.

–  Bác cho cháu xin một số thôi ạ!

–  8

– … 8 rồi… mấy nữa ạ?

–  Thì cậu bảo chỉ cần một số thôi mà!

–  Dạ bác cho cháu xin nốt mấy số còn lại luôn ạ

– 7 8 5 4 8 1 8 2, còn sắp xếp sao thì tuỳ cậu! (Cúp máy đánh xoạch)


Clip by Anglo-Link on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


 

This is a tricky area of the English language for low-level learners, so let’s look again at the rules.

When we start studying English, we learn that to talk about an action that started and finished in the past, we use the past simple tense, (for regular verbs, the base verb + -ed):

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Tổ hợp từ vựng trong tiếng Anh – Collocations

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Clip by Mr.Skypelessons on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


Xem thêm bài: Tổ hợp từ – Collocations – trong tiếng Anh


It’s easy to use very basic verbs such as get, start, have or make, but a great way of improving your English is to learn more interesting verbs that go with particular nouns. For example, while it’s fine to say get attention or do research, your English will sound much better if you can say attract attention or carry out research.

See more below:

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Từ tiếng Anh dài nhất

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Warmup:

Khách khứa ra về hết, trong buồng chỉ còn đôi vợ chồng trẻ. Cùng nhau uống ly rượu hợp cẩn, nhìn nhau say đắm, chú rể hăng hái giục: “Thôi, ta vào việc đi em!”. Cô dâu bẽn lẽn: “Vội thế. Còn sớm mà anh!” Chú rể nôn nóng: “Sớm gì nữa, 10h rồi đấy”. Cô dâu lại bẽn lẽn: “Nhỡ ai gọi cửa thì phiền”. Chú rể càng nôn nóng: “Không ai quấy rầy chúng mình nữa đâu. Thôi, nhanh lên em! Anh chịu không nổi rồi”. Cô dâu rụt rè: “… Thế anh tắt đèn đi vậy. Xấu hổ lắm”. Chú rể trố mắt: “Sao phải tắt? Tắt thì sao đếm phong bì được?”


The longest words in Oxford Dictionaries Online are:

  • antidisestablishmentarianism – opposition to the disestablishment of the Church of England – 28 letters
  • floccinaucinihilipilification – the estimation of something as worthless – 29 letters
  • pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis – a supposed lung disease – 45 letters

You’re unlikely to come across these words in genuine use: they’re generally just provided as answers to questions about the longest words in the English language. In terms of sheer size, however, the longest word to be found in Britain is the Welsh place nameLlanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch. For obvious reasons, it’s usually abbreviated to Llanfair PG.

The 20-volume historical Oxford English Dictionary includes other very long words, most of which are highly technical. These include:

  • otorhinolaryngological – 22 letters
  • immunoelectrophoretically – 25 letters
  • psychophysicotherapeutics – 25 letters
  • thyroparathyroidectomized – 25 letters
  • pneumoencephalographically  – 26 letters
  • radioimmunoelectrophoresis – 26 letters
  • psychoneuroendocrinological – 27 letters
  • hepaticocholangiogastrostomy – 28 letters
  • spectrophotofluorometrically – 28 letters
  • pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism – 30 letters

People sometimes ask whether a DNA string can be considered as the longest English word, given that they can run to many thousands of letters. The answer is no: they’re regarded as chemical names rather than genuine words in the sense of meaningful items of vocabulary. The same is true of the formal names of chemical compounds. These can be almost unlimited in length (for example,aminoheptafluorocyclotetraphosphonitrile, 40 letters) and many contain numerals, Roman and Greek letters, and other symbols, as well as ordinary letters. We don’t tend to regard these terms as proper ‘words’.

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Tản mạn về ‘first, second,..’, ‘firstly, secondly…’

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Warmup:

Ở cửa hàng hoa, một người đàn ông trung niên chọn 3 bông hồng và bảo bà bán hàng:

– Mấy bông hoa này là để gửi cho vợ tôi nhân kỷ niệm ngày cưới. Bà hãy đính kèm vào đây một dải băng lụa thật đẹp và viết thêm dòng chữ: “Mỗi bông hoa này đánh dấu một năm anh được hưởng hạnh phúc”.

Bà bán hàng tỏ vẻ xúc động:

– Ông mới lấy vợ 3 năm thôi ư?

– Không, 30 năm.


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When listing things there is a convention that the first item is introduced as first rather than firstly, although the following items can be said to be secondlythirdlyfourthly, etc.

The reason for this is that first early on had a role as an adverb, and the use of firstly, though established by the 17c, was felt to be an unnecessary affectation. Today this rule is considered outdated, and a variety of sequences are sometimes used:

First…, secondly…, thirdly

Firstly…, secondly…, thirdly

Firstly…, second…, third

The first two of these examples are both usually considered acceptable, but the third should normally be avoided.

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Kết hợp từ chỉ nhóm người và nhóm vật – what do you call a group of people or animals

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Warm-up:

Cuộc thi nhịn đói thế giới vòng chung kết gồm 3 nước Anh, Nhật và Việt Nam. Mỗi người bị nhốt trong một cái tủ sắt và có gắn chuông, hễ ai không chịu nổi thì nhấn chuông “reng…reng” sẽ được mở cửa cho ra ngoài, ai chịu đựng lâu nhất sẽ thắng! Thí sinh người Anh chịu được 3 ngày thì “reng…reng”. Thí sinh người Nhật Nhật chịu được 5 ngày phải bò ra. Qua tới ngày thứ 7, thấy thí sinh Việt Nam vẫn im hơi lặng tiếng, Ban tổ chức quyết định cho Việt Nam thắng. Nhưng khi mở tủ ra thì thấy thí sinh Việt Nam nằm chết từ lúc nào rồi, trên vách còn ghi dòng chữ bằng máu “Chuông hỏng”.


 

Many of the following terms belong to 15th-century lists of ‘proper terms’, such as those in the Book of St Albans attributed to Dame Juliana Barnes (1486). Some are fanciful or humorous terms which probably never had any real currency, but have been taken up by antiquarian writers, notably Joseph Strutt in Sports and Pastimes of England (1801).
See more below:

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Tìm hiểu về từ “billion” và “trillion”

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 Warm-up:

Một con quạ đang đậu trên một cành cây và chẳng thèm làm gì suốt cả ngày. Con thỏ thấy thế bèn hỏi: “Mình có thể ngồi một chỗ và không làm gì như bạn được không nhỉ?” Con quạ trả lời: “Được chứ, sao lại không.” Thế là con thỏ ngồi bên dưới cái cây con quạ đậu và nằm ngủ. Một lát sau, một con cáo tới vồ con thỏ và ăn thịt nó.

Bài học rút ra từ câu chuyện: Để ngồi chơi hưởng lợi, bạn phải “ngồi” trên một vị trí rất cao.


In British English, a billion used to be equivalent to a million million (i.e. 1,000,000,000,000), while in American English it has always equated to a thousand million (i.e. 1,000,000,000). British English has now adopted the American figure, though, so that a billion equals a thousand million in both varieties of English.

The same sort of change has taken place with the meaning of trillion. In British English, a trillion used to mean a million million million (i.e. 1,000,000,000,000,000,000). Nowadays, it’s generally held to be equivalent to a million million (1,000,000,000,000), as it is in American English.

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20 từ ra đời trong thập kỷ 20 của thế kỷ trước hiện vẫn được sử dụng

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The 1920s wasn’t just a period of decadence and flappers in a post-war haze of happiness. While The Great Gatsby drew attention to a world of insouciantpleasure-seeking, the 1920s also saw plenty of words enter the language. Some seem apt for the era, some might surprise, and all twenty selected below have survived for almost a century.

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Khác biệt từ vựng trong tiếng Anh Anh và Anh Mỹ

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Warmup: Có 1 bác người Tàu ở Sài Gòn đi xe gắn máy zô đường cấm bị cảnh sát giao thông thổi phạt. Về nhà bác bức xúc kể với mấy ông bạn hàng xóm: “Pữa lay, ngộ li xe pị tằng cảnh xát zao thông ló thủi, ngộ tấp zô, ló hỏi ngộ: – Zái tờ của ông lâu? Ngộ lói ngộ hỏng có lem zái theo, chỉ có lem cái cạc thui, thế là ló pắt ngộ về l… (đồn)… zồi ló chuyển ngộ từ l…(đồn) nhỏ qua l…(đồn) lớn, tới cái l…(đồn) lớn nhứt ở ngay chung tâm thành pố đó. Chời ơi, pữa lay là ngày lễ, l…(đồn) nhỏ còn lỡ (đỡ) lông (đông), chớ l…(đồn) lớn hả, lông wá chời lông (đông)”. [Ặc ặc!!!]

Lấy chỉ là chiện phát âm khác nhau của cùng môt từ, chớ còn khác cả từ lữa hả, thì pó tay luôn. Như là pọn Anh và pọn Mỹ. Các lệ xem pài zưới lày thì zõ.


Xem thêm bài: Một số khác biệt giữa tiếng Anh Anh và Anh Mỹ – British English vs. Amrerican English


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American readers of British writing are well aware of the spelling differences that exist between the two varieties of English. For example: labor/labourenthral/enthralltire/tyre, or center/centre—to name just a few. There are also many cases in which American and British English use different terms to describe the same thing. Here’s a list of various British words and expressions together with their American equivalents:

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