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Học tiếng Anh và tìm hiểu nước Mỹ qua 100 câu hỏi phỏng vấn quốc tịch – 100 official questions and answers for US Citizenship Naturalization Test

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Civics (History and Government) Questions for the Naturalization Test

 

The 100 civics (history and government) questions and answers for the naturalization test are listed below. The civics test is an oral test and the USCIS Officer will ask the applicant up to 10 of the 100 civics questions. An applicant must answer 6 out of 10 questions correctly to pass the civics portion of the naturalization test.

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Cách thể hiện phân số, số thập phân, số tiền trong viết tiếng Anh – Fraction, Decimals, Money

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Below is a list of rules for writing fractions, decimals and money amounts. Very useful…

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Các dạng thức rút gọn trong tiếng Anh – Informal Contractions in the English language

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Informal Contractions

A contraction is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters (actually, sounds).

In linguistic analysis, contractions should not be confused with abbreviations nor acronyms (including initialisms), with which they share some semantic andphonetic functions, though all three are connoted by the term “abbreviation” in loose parlance. Contraction is also distinguished from clipping, where beginnings and endings are omitted.

The definition overlaps with the grammatical term portmanteau (a linguistic blend), but a distinction can be made between a portmanteau and a contraction by noting that contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not, whereas a portmanteau word is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a singular concept which the portmanteau describes.

Clip on Youtube. Thanks for sharing. 

[WARNING! This song may not be appropriate for some ages and audiences].

LYRICS

Whatcha doin’ tonight, baby?
I kinda like your style, lady.
Wanna hang out for a while, honey?
I’m gonna drive you wild, so try me!
Gimme everything you’ve got, baby.
Lemme see the lot, lady.
We really gotta rock, honey.

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Các dạng thức rút gọn trong tiếng Anh – Common Contractions in the English Language

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A contraction is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters (actually, sounds).

In linguistic analysis, contractions should not be confused with abbreviations nor acronyms (including initialisms), with which they share some semantic andphonetic functions, though all three are connoted by the term “abbreviation” in loose parlance. Contraction is also distinguished from clipping, where beginnings and endings are omitted.

The definition overlaps with the grammatical term portmanteau (a linguistic blend), but a distinction can be made between a portmanteau and a contraction by noting that contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not, whereas a portmanteau word is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a singular concept which the portmanteau describes.

Common contractions in the English language

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Tiếp tục về khác biệt tiếng Anh Anh và Anh Mỹ – British vs. American English

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Khác biệt về phát âm tiếng Anh Anh và Anh Mỹ

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While there are plenty of other dialects of spoken English, American and British are the most commonly taught in ESL/ESOL/EFL courses. Perhaps that’s because there are literally millions of Americans and the fact that British accents are pretty dreamy. British English and American English are both valued and respected, despite those who often assert that one is better or easier to understand than the other. The similarities between the two far outweigh the differences, but those differences can sometimes really impact understanding. See more below:

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Người mới nhập cư cần biết – English for new Americans

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Một clip tuyệt cú mèo về Health, Home và Community

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Một số “cấu kiện” hay dùng về ăn uống – Eating and drinking phases

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Xem thêm bài: Một số cách nói về ăn uống – food and cooking 

và bài Thành ngữ về đồ ăn – Food idioms


 

Going out for a drink

  • Let’s go for a drink! / Let’s go down the pub! / Let’s go out for a few bevvies. / a few jars. -Let’s go to my local public house – the pub – for some drinks.
  • We’re going to paint the town red. / We’re going to go on a bar crawl. – We’re going to several pubs or bars.
  • I’ll get the booze!- I’ll buy the beer!
  • A glass of bubbly – A glass of champagne or sparkling wine.
  • That wine is corked! It tastes like vinegar. -the wine is bad.
  • chaser – A measure of a spirit such as whisky or rum which you drink with beer.
  • double – 2 measures of spirits. A single measure is usually 1/5 of a gill – 25 ml.
  • drop of the hard stuff – Some spirits rather than beer or wine.
  • soft drink – A non-alcoholic drink.

See more below:

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Làm sao để nói tiếng Anh lưu loát – Expert tips for English fluency

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Warm-up:


 

See the tips below:

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Một chút về văn hóa Mỹ – Getting culturally adapted in the US

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Có thể học được rất nhiều từ các video clips bên dưới: học nghe, học nói, học thuyết trình, học trình bày slide, học về slang, học cách vượt qua sự khác biệt văn hóa, học cách hòa nhập môi trường mới, biết trước về các diễn tiến tâm lý thường xảy ra khi gia nhập môi trường văn hóa mới, học cách tự tin, học tính kiên trì … 


 

Quy tắc ngữ điệu trong nói tiếng Anh – Rule of Changing Pitch

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Xem thêm bài: Trọng âm câu – yếu tố cực kỳ quan trọng trong nói tiếng Anh  và bài  Trọng âm từ – yếu tố vô cùng quan trọng khi nói tiếng Anh



Intonation: How to Speak with Pitch Changes

Intonation is the pattern of pitch changes as people speak. These change from one culture to another. Pitch is the tone of your voice. In American English, people have about 3 notes that they use when speaking. Most words are in the middle tone. Stressed words are in the high tone, and the low-tone often comes before a stress (it makes the stress larger by creating more difference in tone). The low tone may be used at the end of sentences too, though you do not always have to end on a low tone.

See more below:

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Thế nào là thành ngữ, tục ngữ …. ? – What are … Proverbs, Sayings, Aphorisms, Idioms, Puns, etc.

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Mời bạn trả lời câu hỏi dưới đây trước khi đọc tiếp


 

Here is a list of definitions (with examples), which helps to understand the difference between these terms.

It is common to find different words existing in English to represent similar ideas. It is a frequent characteristic of a language with a long history. There are a number of specific types of saying, of which proverb is probably the best known. However, the distinction between them is often pretty vague.

See more below:

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Thành ngữ tiếng Anh – Halloween related terms and idioms

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halloween-468026_640

Witches, ghosts and skeletons

witch-hunt – to go on a witch-hunt is to try and find and punish or harrass people with unpopular opinions, usually because they are said to be dangerous to others.

This expression has its origins in the witch-hunts of the Middle Ages when thousands of young women in Europe were killed because they were thought to be witches.

See more below:

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Cách tránh lỗi “mập mờ” trong viết tiếng Anh – Avoiding Ambiguity in Your Writing

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Xem thêm bài: Cách tránh lỗi “lập lờ” – ambiguity – khi sử dụng tiếng Anh


Are you looking to add a little more clarity to your writing? If so, here are eight methods for correcting ambiguous expressions, as written by Norman Stageberg in “Ambiguity in College Writing: To a College Freshman.”

Put simply, ambiguity means “multiple meaning”. A word or passage that can be understood or interpreted in more than one way is ambiguous.

  • You see, many hands make light work.

Note: This sentence is ambiguous because of the words “light” and “work.” It is unclear whether light is a noun or adjective, and whether work is a noun or verb. So, readers are left to wonder whether the “light is working,” or the “work is light.”

See more below:

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22 cách nói CÓ – 22 ways to say yes

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The word yes is great and all … but there’s plenty of other ways you can offer someone a verbal go-ahead. So if you feel like dipping your toes into the wild waters of alternative affirmations, then take a gander at the list below. If you’re feeling brave, deploy an aye aye in a business meeting or let loose a fo’ shizzle when someone asks if you’d like to go grab an ice cream. Let’s have a look at other ways to say yes!

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Đủ vốn để nói KHÔNG cả tháng – 29 ways to say NO

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Sometimes you need somebody to get the point, and a simple no won’t do it. We’ve taken a look through the Historical Thesaurus of the OED and other sources to find out how best to say no to something. Now you can say no daily for almost a whole month without repeating yourself.

1. no

Let’s start with the easy one. No dates to Old English, unsurprisingly; a corresponding o(meaning ‘ever; always’) is now obsolete.

See more below:

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Tìm hiểu về Flammable và Inflammable – Why Do Flammable and Inflammable Mean the Same Thing?

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English is a trickster of a language, evidenced by the fact that two words that appear to be antonyms can actually mean the exact same thing. For the most part we manage to bumble along without confusing the two, and can figure out which meaning is intended based on context (although in the case of regardless and irregardless some extra time is needed for teeth-gnashing). We know thatinhabitable refers to a place that is habitable, and don’t feel any need to stop our conversation to point out the superfluous in- prefix.

See more below:

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Tại sao người Hà Lan gọi là Dutch? – Why Are People from the Netherlands Called Dutch?

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A demonym is any name derived from a place. The word “demonym” was coined by Paul Dickson, an editor at Merriam-Webster, in his 1997 book Labels for Locals. Californian, Frenchmen, New Yorker, and Swiss are all demonyms.

See more below:

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Thành ngữ về đồ ăn – Food idioms

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Một số từ vựng cần biết khi đi mua sắm.

Clip by Hello Channel on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


See more below:

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Một số cách nói về ăn uống – Food and cooking

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Food and cooking

  • Nosh / grub – These are informal words for food.
  • Lets go out for a slap up dinner. / Let’s pig out and stuff our faces! – Let’s go out and have a lot to eat!
  • The food was fusion. – There was a mix of two types of food, e.g. Thai and western European.
  • I really fancy an Indian! – You’re not in love with someone from India – you just want to go for a curry [spicy Indian food]!
  • Fancy a ruby? – Here, ‘ruby’ is rhyming slang for ‘curry’. [Ruby Murray was one of the most popular singers in the UK in the 1950s.]
  • I’m starving. I could eat a horse! – you are extremely hungry!
  • I’m just a bit peckish. – You are not particularly hungry but feel like having something to eat.

See more below:

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Một vài cách nói về sức khỏe trong tiếng Anh – Health related terms

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Feeling ill

  • I feel really rough.
  • I’m shattered.
  • I’m on my last legs.
  • You look poorly.
  • You look like death warmed up.
  • You’re looking peaky.

All these are informal expressions that indicate you are feeling ill or unwell, tired and exhausted.

See more below:

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Một số từ thông dụng dùng liên quan tới tiền bạc – Money words used in the street

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Enjoy (… or not):

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 Giờ thì “ngâm cứu” về tiền bạc.

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The money in your pocket:

  • Doshdoughwedge – These are informal terms for money.
  • fiver , A tenner . – £5, £10
  • Twenty quid – £20
  • ton – £100
  • grand – £1,000
  • Loose change – coins
  • I’ve only got a few coppers. – I only have a few 2p and 1p coins.
  • Plastic – credit/debit cards

See more below:

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Một số “cấu kiện” tiếng Anh thông dụng – the English we speak

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Out of juice:

When you’ve used all the battery power of something like a mobile phone, so that it doesn’t work anymore, we can say it’s ‘out of juice’. It’s a slang expression.

Sometimes if a person feels low on energy, they could say ‘I’m out of juice’. Also if your car is low on petrol, you could say ‘The car’s running out of juice.’

Examples:

  • My laptop’s out of juice. This is so frustrating.
  • I am packing three spare phone batteries so I don’t run out of juice on my climbing trip.

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Một số từ tiếng Anh dễ bị lẫn lộn – Common Mistakes and Confusing Words in English

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Let’s face it, English can be confusing. A lot of words are similar but with different meanings, as a result it is almost impossible to avoid making mistakes in English, but if you can get your head around these explanations, you might be able to avoid making these ones or at least recognise them when you see them. Words marked with an asterisk * have confusing pronunciation.

See them below:

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Một số thuật ngữ văn học – nghệ thuật – Some literature terms

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1. analogy (phép so sánh, tương tự)

An analogy refers to ‘a comparison between two things, typically for the purpose of explanation or clarification’.

2. anaphora (phép trùng lặp, thể trùng điệp)

An anaphora is ‘the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses’.

See more below:

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Một số thành ngữ liên quan đến bánh trái – 11 baking idioms to whet your appetite

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 1. To be caught with your hand in the cookie jar

Have you ever had one (or a few) too many cookies and then felt horribly guilty about it? If so, this is the phrase for you! It extends figuratively to encompass someone being caught doing anything wrong or mischievous.

2. Easy as pie

This phrase refers to ‘something easily accomplished or dealt with’and began life, according to the OED, in the early 20th century. We all know just how easy it is to consume a slice of pie (or a whole pie…).

See more below:

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Cách tránh lỗi “lập lờ” – ambiguity – khi sử dụng tiếng Anh

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Warm-up:

Gia đình kia quyết định đi du lịch một tuần. Họ thuê hai cô nhân viên điều dưỡng về chăm sóc cho bà cụ già bị liệt hai chân và cấm khẩu.

Cả nhà đi khỏi, hai cô cho bà cụ tắm rửa, ăn uống, rồi đặt cụ lên xe lăn ra vườn chơi. Mọi việc đều tiến triển tốt. Nhưng rồi đột nhiên bà cụ từ từ ngả người sang một bên, mặt “trầm ngâm”. Hốt hoảng, hai cô vội vàng giữ vai và dựng cụ thẳng người lên. Bà cụ không nói gì, nhưng sau đó một lúc, cụ lại từ từ nghiêng người qua phía kia. Ngay lập tức, họ lại vực cụ ngồi thẳng dậy. Cứ thế, họ phải túc trực bên bà cụ suốt cả mấy hôm vì sự việc đó xảy ra liên tục.

Khi gia đình kia đi chơi về, họ hỏi bà cụ xem hai cô gái chăm sóc bà có tốt không. Bà viết nguệch ngoạc vào tờ giấy mấy dòng: “Nói chung là chu đáo, nhưng có điều chúng nó nhất quyết không cho tao… đánh rắm lần nào trong suốt cả tuần liền!”


 

Ambiguity and how to avoid it

Xem thêm bài: Cách tránh lỗi “mập mờ” khi viết tiếng Anh – Avoiding ambiguity in your writing

Example 1: This morning I shot an elephant in my pajamas.

Who was wearing the pajamas? The hunter or the elephant?

This is a syntactical ambiguity that can be cleared up grammatically.

Improved: This morning, in my pajamas, I shot an elephant.

Though you could probably tell from context what the author meant, there is no reason to unintentionally make such a mistake.

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Phép ẩn dụ – metaphor – trong tiếng Anh

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Warm-up:

Cô gái đi học trên thành phố, nửa đêm nhận được tin nhắn: “Chào em, mình làm quen được không? Em có người yêu chưa?”
– Em có rồi anh ạ!
– Thế á, cha mày đây, sớm mai bắt xe về quê ngay họp gia đình chuyện này!
Hôm sau cô gái nhất quyết không về, nửa đêm lại có tin nhắn:
– Anh phải làm sao để được làm bạn em? Cho phép anh làm quen nhá! Em có người yêu chưa?
– Em chưa!
– Em làm anh thất vọng quá, một phép thử đơn giản là biết được lòng nhau ngay, mình chia tay thôi!
– Ôi em xin lỗi, em tưởng ông già em, cho e một lời giải thích.
– Giải thích gì? Ông già mày đây, mai không về quê thì đừng về nữa! Gọi cả thằng đó về cho tao!


Metaphor

“All the world’s a stage,
And all the men and women merely players
They have their exits and their entrances”
 -William Shakespeare

metaphor is a figure of speech that says that one thing is another different thing. This allows us to use fewer words and forces the reader or listener to find the similarities.

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Từ và cụm từ Latin và Hy Lạp thông dụng trong tiếng Anh

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Xem thêm bài: Cách đọc chữ cái Hy Lạp thông dụng bằng tiếng Anh

Even though Latin is considered a dead language (no country officially speaks it), its influence upon other languages makes it still important. Latin words and expressions are present in virtually all the languages around the world, as well as on different scientific and academic fields.

Below you will find a list with the most used and important Latin words and expressions, enjoy!

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Ôi! ngữ pháp… ! Đến dân bản ngữ cũng còn ỏm tỏi với nhau [1]

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1. Never split an infinitive.

It isn’t wise to always ignore this fallacious rule against dividing the elements of the verb phrase “to (verb)” with an adverb, but to blindly follow it is to prohibit pleasing turns of phrase — one of the best known of which is from the introductory voice-over from all the Star Trek television series: “to boldly go where no one has gone before.” (The original series, produced before the more recent sensitivity to gender bias, put it “no man.”)

See more below:

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25 lỗi lính rất kỳ cựu cũng có thể mắc trong sử dụng tiếng Anh

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List of common mistakes by very advanced learners.

See below:

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35 lỗi lính kỳ cựu cũng mắc trong sử dụng tiếng Anh

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List of common mistakes by advanced learners:

See below:

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35 lỗi lính hạng trung thường mắc trong sử dụng tiếng Anh

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List of common mistakes by intermediate learners:

See below:

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Tại sao cần hiểu và dùng đúng tổ hợp từ trong tiếng Anh (collocation)

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[Xem thêm bài: Tổ hợp từ – Collocation -trong tiếng Anh]

What is a collocation?

A collocation is a group of words that usually go together. For example, in English, we usually say ‘heavy rain’. It’s correct grammatically to say ‘strong rain’ or ‘big rain’, but both of these sound completely strange. A native English speaker would never say ‘big rain’. If you use the normal collocation (‘heavy rain’) your English will sound a lot better and more natural and it will be easier for native speakers to understand you. Collocations are very, very important.

See more below:

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Trọng âm câu – sentence stress – yếu tố cực kỳ quan trọng trong nói tiếng Anh

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Xem thêm bài: Trọng âm từ – yếu tố vô cùng quan trọng khi nói tiếng Anh


Sentence Stress in English

Sentence stress is the music of spoken English. Like word stress, sentence stress can help you to understand spoken English, especially when spoken fast.

Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or “beat”. You remember that word stress is accent on one syllable within a word. Sentence stress is accent on certain words within a sentence.

Most sentences have two types of word:

  • content words
  • structure words

See more below:

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Trọng âm từ – Word stress – yếu tố vô cùng quan trọng khi nói tiếng Anh

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Xem thêm bài: Trọng âm câu – sentence stress – yếu tố cực kỳ quan trọng trong nói tiếng Anh


 

Word stress is your magic key to understanding spoken English. Native speakers of English use word stress naturally. Word stress is so natural for them that they don’t even know they use it. Non-native speakers who speak English to native speakers without using word stress, encounter two problems:

  1. They find it difficult to understand native speakers, especially those speaking fast.
  2. The native speakers may find it difficult to understand them.

See more below:

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Một số lời khuyên luyện nói tiếng Anh – Tips on English speaking

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Julian’s clip on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


[No advice works, if it ever does, for all. So sleep on it before picking any, inclusive :).]

1. Don’t study grammar too much

This rule might sound strange to many ESL students, but it is one of the most important rules. If you want to pass examinations, then study grammar. However, if you want to become fluent in English, then you should try to learn English without studying the grammar.

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100 lời khuyên cho người học tiếng Anh

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Bài viết của cô Hester đăng trên http://www.langports.com/

Một số lời khuyên dành cho người học tiếng Anh. Không hẳn đã đúng cả, nhưng cũng rất bổ ích. Cảm ơn Hester!

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Một số thành ngữ thông dụng trong tiếng Anh – Idioms

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Increase your vocabulary and speak more natural English by studying the idioms and expressions below. These are some of the most common expressions in English. Study the example sentences which show how idioms are used in context when you speak English. Have fun!

See the idioms below:

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Một số thành ngữ thông dụng về thể thao

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Clip by English Lessons with Alex (engVid AlexESLvid) on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


 

Heather, a trainer at the school, has written about her favourite football team and sporting idioms.

“Having fretted (worried) about my football team, the mighty (strong and powerful) Chelsea, potentially not winning any silverware (cups or trophies) this season, I was very happy to spend the sunniest day so far this year watching Frank (Lampard) score the winning goal against Everton in the F.A. Cup final. I love sport, none more than football, which started me thinking about how many sporting idioms we have in English. Although there are idioms that originate from a variety of sports, many used in the UK are from boxing, football, cricket, golf and horseracing.”

See if you can guess the meanings of the idioms below before you read the explanation.

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Cách đọc phản ứng hóa học bằng tiếng Anh

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Reaction Reading by Elementary Entities (Formula Units) Reading by Mole (NA of elementary entities or formula units)
2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O 2 molecules of hydrogen react with 1 molecule of oxygen to form 2 molecules of water 2 moles of hydrogen react with 1 mole

of oxygen to form 2 moles of water

CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O 1 molecule of methane reacts with 2 molecules of oxygen to form 1 molecule of carbon dioxide and 2 molecules of water 1 mole of methane reacts with 2 moles of oxygen to form 1 mole of carbon dioxide and 2 moles of water
2 Na + 2 H2O → 2 NaOH + H2 2 atoms of sodium react with 2 molecules of water to form 2 formula units of sodium hydroxide and 1 molecule of hydrogen 2 moles of sodium reacts with 2 moles of water to form 2 moles of sodium hydroxide and 1 mole of hydrogen
Ca + 2 H2O → Ca(OH)2 + H2 1 atom of calcium reacts with 2 molecules of water to form 1 formula unit of calcium hydroxide and 1 molecule of hydrogen 1 mole of calcium reacts with 2 moles of water to form 1 mole of calcium hydroxide and 1 mole of hydrogen
2 NaBr + Cl2 → 2 NaCl + Br2 2 formula units of sodium bromide react with 1 molecule of chlorine to form 2 formula units of sodium chloride and 1 molecule of bromine 2 moles of sodium bromide react with 1 mole of chlorine to form 2 moles of sodium chloride and 1 mole of bromine
AgNO3 + KCl → AgCl↓ + KNO3 1 formula unit of silver nitrate reacts with 1 formula unit of potassium chloride to form 1 formula unit of silver chloride (precipitate) and 1 formula unit of potassium nitrate 1 mole of silver nitrate reacts with 1 mole of potassium chloride to form 1 mole of silver chloride (precipitate) and 1 mole of potassium nitrate
2AgNO3 +CaBr2→2 AgBr↓+ Ca(NO3)2 2 formula units of silver nitrate react with 1 formula unit of calcium bromide to form 2 formula units of silver bromide (precipitate) and 1 formula unit of calcium nitrate 2 moles of silver nitrate react with 1 mole of calcium bromide to form 2 moles of silver bromide (precipitate) and 1 mole of calcium nitrate
Na2CO3 + 2HCl→2NaCl + CO2↑ +H2O 1 formula unit of sodium carbonate reacts with 2 formula units of hydrochloric acid to form 2 formula units of sodium chloride, 1 molecule of carbon dioxide (gas), and 1 molecule of water 1 mole of sodium carbonate reacts with 2 moles of hydrochloric acid to form 2 moles of sodium chloride, 1 mole of carbon dioxide (gas), and 1 mole of water

 

Reaction Reading by Mole (NA of elementary entities or formula units) Reading by Mass (Molar mass of each substance is needed)
2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O 2 moles of hydrogen react with 1 mole of oxygen to form 2 moles of water 4 g of hydrogen react with 32 g of oxygen to form 36 g of water
CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O 1 mole of methane reacts with 2 moles of oxygen to form 1 mole of carbon dioxide and 2 moles of water 16 g of methane react with 32 g of oxygen to form 44 g of carbon dioxide and 36 g of water
2 Na + 2 H2O → 2 NaOH + H2 2 moles of sodium reacts with 2 moles of water to form 2 moles of sodium hydroxide and 1 mole of hydrogen 46 g of sodium react with 36 g of water to form

80 g of sodium hydroxide and 2 g of hydrogen

Ca + 2 H2O → Ca(OH)2 + H2 1 mole of calcium reacts with 2 moles of water to form 1 mole of calcium hydroxide and 1 mole of hydrogen 40 g of calcium react with 36 g of water to form

74 g of calcium hydroxide and 2 g of hydrogen

2 NaBr + Cl2 → 2 NaCl + Br2 2 moles of sodium bromide react with 1 mole of chlorine to form 2 moles of sodium chloride and 1 mole of bromine 206 g of sodium bromide react with 71 g of chlorine to form 117 g of sodium chloride and 160 g of bromine
AgNO3 + KCl → AgCl↓ + KNO3 1 mole of silver nitrate reacts with 1 mole of potassium chloride to form 1 mole of silver chloride (precipitate) and 1 mole of potassium nitrate 170 g of silver nitrate react with 74 g of potassium chloride to form 143 g of silver chloride (precipitate) and 101 g of potassium nitrate
2AgNO3 +CaBr2→2 AgBr↓+ Ca(NO3)2 2 moles of silver nitrate react with 1 mole of calcium bromide to form 2 moles of silver bromide (precipitate) and 1 mole of calcium nitrate 240 g of silver nitrate react with 200 g of calcium bromide to form 356 g of silver bromide (precipitate) and 184 of calcium nitrate
Na2CO3 + 2HCl→2NaCl + CO2↑ +H2O 1 mole of sodium carbonate reacts with 2 moles of hydrochloric acid to form 2 moles of sodium chloride, 1 mole of carbon dioxide (gas), and 1 mole of water 106 g of sodium carbonate reacts with 73 g of hydrochloric acid to form 117 g of sodium chloride, 44 g of carbon dioxide (gas), and 18 g of water

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Cốt yếu trong phát âm tiếng Anh – English pronunciation essentials

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The pronunciations given are those in use among educated urban speakers of standard English in Britain and the United States. While avoiding strongly regionally or socially marked forms, they are intended to include the most common variants for each word. The keywords given are to be understood as pronounced in such speech.

This key is to the pronunciations given in revised entries. For pronunciations in unrevised entries, see this key.

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Cách đọc phân số, thập phân, dấu mũ, số đếm, số thứ tự trong tiếng Anh

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Fractions

½ a half /ə ‘hɑ:f/
¼ a quarter /ə ‘kwɔːtə/
¾ three quarters /θriː ‘kwɔːtəz/
a third /ə ‘θɜ:d/
two thirds /tu: ‘θɜ:dz/
a fifth /ə ‘fɪfθ/
two fifths /tu: ‘fɪfθs/
three fifths /θriː ‘fɪfθs/
four fifths /fɔː ‘fɪfθs/
a sixth /ə ‘sɪksθ/
five sixths /faɪv ‘sɪksθs/
an eighth /ən ‘eɪtθ/
three eighths /θriː ‘eɪtθs/
five eighths /faɪv ‘eɪtθs/
seven eighths /sevən ‘eɪtθs/

 

Decimal Fractions

0.1 nought point one /nɔ:t pɔɪnt wʌn/
0.01 nought point oh one /nɔ:t pɔɪnt əʊ wʌn/
0.0001 nought point oh oh oh one /ten pɔɪnt əʊ əʊ əʊ wʌn/
1.1 one point one /wʌn pɔɪnt wʌn/
1.2 one point two /wʌn pɔɪnt tu:/
1.23 one point two three /wʌn pɔɪnt tu: θri:/
1.0123 one point oh one two three /wʌn pɔɪnt əʊ wʌn tu: θri:/
10.01 ten point oh one /ten pɔɪnt əʊ wʌn/
21.57 twenty-one point five seven /’twentɪ wʌn pɔɪnt  faɪv ‘sevən/
2.6666666666…. two point six recurring /tu: pɔɪnt  sɪks rɪ’kɜ:rɪŋ/
2.612361236123… two point six one two three recurring /tu: pɔɪnt  sɪks wʌn tu: θri: rɪ’kɜ:rɪŋ/
2.5 million two point five million /tu: pɔɪnt  faɪv ‘mɪljən/

 

SI Units: Prefixes

 

Prefix Symbol 10n Long/Short Scale
yotta (gr. okto – eight) Y 1024 Quadrillion/Septillion
zetta (lat. septem – seven) Z 1021 Trilliard/Sextillion
eksa (gr. ex – six) E 1018 Trillion/Quintillion
peta (gr. penta – five) P 1015 Billiard/Quadrillion
tera (gr. teras – monster) T 1012 Billion/Trillion
giga (gr. gigas – giant) G 109 Milliard/Billion
mega (gr. megas – great) M 106 Million/Million
kilo (gr. khilioi – thousand) k 10³ Thousand/Thousand
hecto (gr. hekaton – hundred) h 10² Hundred/Hundred
deca (gr. deka – ten) da 101 Ten/Ten
100 One/One
decy (lat. decimus – tenth) d 10-1 Tenth/Tenth
centy (lac. centum – hundredth) c 10-2 Hundredth/Hundredth
milli (lac. mille – thousand) m 10-3 Thousandth/Thousandth
mikro (gr. mikros – small) µ 10-6 Millionth/Millionth
nano (gr. nanos – dwarf) n 10-9 Milliardth/Billionth
pico (it. piccolo – small) p 10-12 Billionth/Trillionth
femto (den. femten – fifteen) f 10-15 Billiardth/Quadrillionth
atto (den. atten – eighteen) a 10-18 Trillionth/Quintillionth
zepto (lat. septem – seven) z 10-21 Trilliardth/Sextillionth
yokto (gr. okto – eight) y 10-24 Quadrillionth/Septillionth

 

Cardinal Numbers

1 one /wʌn/
2 two /tu:/
3 three /θri:/
4 four /fɔː/
5 five /faɪv/
6 six /sɪks/
7 seven /’sevən/
8 eight /eɪt/
9 nine /naɪn/
10 ten /ten/
11 eleven /ɪ’levən/
12 twelve /twelv/
13 thirteen /θɜ:’ti:n/
14 fourteen /fɔː’ti:n/
15 fifteen /fɪf’ti:n/
16 sixteen /sɪkst’i:n/
17 seventeen /seven’ti:n/
18 eighteen /eɪ’ti:n/
19 nineteen /naɪn’ti:n/
20 twenty /’twentɪ/
21 twenty-one /twentɪ’wʌn/
22 twenty-two /twentɪ’tu:/
23 twenty-three /twentɪ’θri:/
24 twenty-four /twentɪ’fɔː/
25 twenty-five /twentɪ’faɪv/
26 twenty-six /twentɪ’sɪks/
27 twenty-seven /twentɪ’sevən/
28 twenty-eight /twentɪ’eɪt/
29 twenty-nine /twentɪ’naɪn/
30 thirty /’θɜ:tɪ/
40 forty /’fɔːtɪ/
50 fifty /’fɪftɪ/
60 sixty /’sɪkstɪ/
70 seventy /’sevəntɪ/
80 eighty /’eɪtɪ/
90 ninety /’naɪntɪ/
100 a hundred; one hundred /ə ‘hʌndrəd/ /wʌn ‘hʌndrəd/
101 a hundred and one /ə ‘hʌndrəd ən wʌn/
102 a hundred and two /ə ‘hʌndrəd ən tu:/
110 a hundred and ten /ə ‘hʌndrəd ən ten/
120 a hundred and twenty /ə ‘hʌndrəd ən ‘twentɪ/
200 two hundred /tu: ‘hʌndrəd/
300 three hundred /θri:  ‘hʌndrəd/
400 four hundred /fɔː ‘hʌndrəd/
500 five hundred /faɪv ‘hʌndrəd/
600 six hundred /sɪks ‘hʌndrəd/
700 seven hundred /’sevən ‘hʌndrəd/
800 eight hundred /eɪt ‘hʌndrəd/
900 nine hundred /naɪn ‘hʌndrəd/
1 000 a thousand, one thousand /ə θ’ɑʊzənd/ /wʌn ‘θɑʊzənd/
1 001 a thousand and one /ə ‘θɑʊzənd ən wʌn/
1 010 a thousand and ten /ə ‘θɑʊzənd ən ten/
1 020 a thousand and twenty /ə ‘θɑʊzənd ən ‘twentɪ/
1 100 one thousand, one hunded /wʌn ‘θɑʊzənd wʌn ‘hʌndrəd/
1 101 one thousand, one hundred and one /wʌn ‘θɑʊzənd wʌn ‘hʌndrəd ən wʌn/
1 110 one thousand, one hundred and ten /wʌn ‘θɑʊzənd wʌn ‘hʌndrəd ən ten/
9 999 nine thousand, nine hundred and ninety-nine /naɪn ‘θɑʊzənd naɪn ‘hʌndrəd ən ‘naɪntɪ ‘naɪn/
10 000 ten thousand /ten ‘θɑʊzənd/
15 356 fifteen thousand, three hundred and fifty six /’fɪfti:n ‘θɑʊzənd θri: ‘hʌndrəd ən ‘fɪftɪ sɪks/
100 000 a hundred thousand /ə ‘hʌndrəd ‘θɑʊzənd/
1 000 000 a million /ə ‘mɪljən/
100 000 000 a hundred million /ə ‘hʌndrəd ‘mɪljən/
1 000 000 000 a billion /ə ‘bɪljən/
100 000 000 000 a hundred billion /ə ‘hʌndrəd ‘bɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 a trillion /ə ‘trɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 a quadrillion /ə kwɒdrɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 a quintillian /ə kwɪn’tɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 a sextillion /ə seks’tɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 a septillion /ə sep’tɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 an ocillion /ən ɒkt’tɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 a nonillion /ə nɒn’ɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 a decillion /ə de’sɪljən/

 

Ordinal Numbers

1st first /fɜ:st/
2nd second /’sekənd/
3rd third /θɜ:d/
4th fourth /fɔ:θ/
5th fifth /fɪfθ/
6th sixth /sɪksθ/
7th seventh /’sevənθ/
8th eighth /eɪtθ/
9th ninth /naɪnθ/
10th tenth /tenθ/
11th eleventh /ɪ’levənθ/
12th twelfth /’twelfθ/
13th thirteenth /θɜ:’ti:nθ/
14th fourtheenth /fɔː’ti:nθ/
15th fidteenth /fɪf’ti:nθ/
16th sixteenth /sɪks’ti:nθ/
17th seventeenth /seven’ti:nθ/
18th eighteenth /eɪ’ti:nθ/
19th nineteenth /naɪn’ti:nθ/
20th twentieth /’twentɪəθ/
21st twenty-first /twentɪ’fɜ:st/
22nd twenty-second /twentɪ’sekənd/
23rd twenty-third /twentɪ’θɜ:d/
24th twenty-fourth /twentɪ’fɔ:θ/
25th twenty-fifth /twentɪ’fɪfθ/
26th twenty-sixth /twentɪ’sɪksθ/
27th twenty-seventh /twentɪ’sevənθ/
28th twenty-eighth /twentɪ’eɪtθ/
29th twenty-ninth /twentɪ’naɪnθ/
30th thirtieth /’θɜːtɪəθ/
31st thirty-first /θɜːtɪ’fɜ:st/
40th fortieth /’fɔ:tɪəθ/
50th fiftieth /’fɪftɪəθ/
100th hundredth /’hʌndrədθ/
1 000th thousandth /’θɑʊzəndθ/
1 000 000th miilionth /’mɪljənθ/

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Cách đọc chữ cái Hy Lạp thông dụng bằng tiếng Anh

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Greek alphabet

Α α alpha /’ælfə/
Β β beta /’bi:tə/
Γ γ gamma /’gæmə/
Δ δ delta /’deltə/
Ε ε epsilon /’epsilən/
Ζ ζ zeta /’ziːtə/
Η η eta /’iːtə/
Θ θ theta /’θiːtə/
Ι ι iota /aɪ’əʊtə/
Κ κ kappa /’kæpə/
Λ λ lamda /’læmdə/
Μ μ mu /’mjuː/
Ν ν nu /’njuː/
Ξ ξ xi /’ksaɪ/
Ο ο omicron /’əʊmɪkrən/
Π π pi /’paɪ/
Ρ ρς rho /’rəʊ/
Σ σ sigma /’sɪgmə/
Τ τ tau /’tɑʊ/
Υ υ upsilon /’jʊpsɪlən/
Φ φ phi /’faɪ/
Χ χ chi /’kaɪ/
Ψ ψ psi /’psaɪ/
Ω ω omega /’əʊmɪgə/

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Cách đọc ký hiệu toán học và khoa học trong tiếng Anh

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Common pronunciations (in British English – Gimson,1981) of mathematical and scientific symbols are given in the list below.

Symbols

+ plus /’plʌs/
minus /’maɪnəs/
± plus or minus /’plʌs  ɔ:  ‘maɪnəs/
x multiplied by /’mʌltɪplaɪd baɪ/
/ over; divided by /’əʊvə/ /dɪ’vaɪdəd/
÷ divided /dɪ’vaɪdəd/
= equals /’ɪ:kwəlz/
approximately, similar /ə’prɒksɪmətlɪ/ /’sɪmɪlə tʊ/
equivalent to; identical /ɪk’wɪvələnt tʊ/ /aɪ’dentɪkl tʊ/
not equal to /’nɒt ‘iːkwəl tʊ/
> greater than /’greɪtə ðən/
< less than /’les ðən/
greater than or equal to /’greɪtə ðən ər ‘iːkwəl tʊ/
less than or equal to /’les ðən ər’ iːkwəl tʊ/
not greater than /’nɒt ‘greɪtə ðən/
not less than /’nɒt ‘les ðən/
much greater than /’mʌʧ ‘greɪtə ðən/
much less than /’mʌʧ ‘les ðən/
perpendicular to /pɜːpən’dɪkjʊlə tʊ/
∣∣ parallel to /’pærəlel tʊ/
not equivalent to, not identical to /’nɒt ɪk’wɪvələnt tʊ/ /’nɒt aɪ’dentɪkl tʊ/
≄≉ not similar to /’nɒt ‘sɪmɪlə tʊ/
² squared /’skweəd/
³ cubed /’kju:bd/
4 to the fourth;  to the power four /tə ðə ‘fɔːθ/ /te ðə ‘pɑʊə fɔː/
n  to the n; to the nth; to the power n /tə ðɪ en; tə dɪ enθ; tə ðə pɑʊər en/
root; square root /ru:t/ /skweə ru:t/
cube root /kju:b ru:t/
fourth root /fɔːθ ruːt/
! factorial /fæk’tɔːrɪəl/
% percent /pə’sent/
infinity /ɪn’fɪnətɪ/
varies as; proportional to /’vɛərɪz/  /prə’pɔːʃənəl/
˙ dot /dɒt/
¨ double dot /dʌbl dɒt/
: is to, ratio of /reɪʃɪəʊ/
f(x) fx f; function /ef/ /’fʌŋkʃən/
f'(x) f dash; derivative /dæʃ/ /dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f”x f double-dash; second derivative /’dʌbl dæʃ/ /’sekənd dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f”'(x) f triple-dash; f treble-dash; third derivative /’trɪpl dæʃ/ / trebl dæʃ/ /θɜ:d dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f(4) f four; fourth derivative /fɔːθ dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
partial derivative, delta /paːʃəl dɪ’rɪvətɪv/ /deltə/
integral /’ɪntɪgrəl/
sum /sʌm/
w.r.t. with respect to /wɪð ‘rɪspekt/
log log /lɒg/
logx log to the base 2 of x /lɒg tə ðə beɪs tu: əv eks/
therefore /’ðɛəfɔː/
because /bɪ’kɒz/
gives, leads to, approaches /gɪvz/ /li:dz tʊ/ /əprəʊʧəz/
/ per /pɜ:/
belongs to; a member of;  an element of /bɪ’lɒŋz/ /’membə/ /’elɪmənt/
does not belong to; is not a member of; is not an element of /nɒt bɪ’lɒŋ/ /nɒt ə ‘membə/ /nɒt ən ‘elɪmənt/
contained in;  a proper subset of /kən’teɪnd ɪn/ /’prɒpə ‘sʌbset/
contained in; subset /’sʌbset/
intersection /’ɪntəsekʃən/
union /’juːnɪən/
for all /fə rɔ:l/
cos x cos x; cosine x /kɒz/
sin x sine x /saɪn/
tan x tangent x /tan/
cosec x cosec x /’kəʊsek/
sinh x shine x /’ʃaɪn/
cosh x cosh x /’kɒʃ/
tanh x than x /θæn/
|x| mod x; modulus x /mɒd/ /’mɒdjʊləs/
degrees Centigrade /dɪ’gri:z ‘sentɪgreɪd/
degrees Fahrenheit /dɪ’gri:z ‘færənhaɪt/
°K degrees Kelvin /dɪ’gri:z ‘kelvɪn/
0°K, –273.15 °C absolute zero /absəlu:t zi:rəʊ/
mm millimetre /’mɪlɪmiːtə/
cm centimetre /’sentɪmiːtə/
cc, cm³ cubic centimetre, centimetre cubed /’kjuːbɪk ‘sentɪmiːtə/ /’sentɪmiːtə ‘kju:bd/
m metre /’miːtə/
km kilometre /kɪ’lɒmɪtə/
mg milligram /’mɪlɪgræm/
g gram /græm/
kg kilogram /’kɪləgræm/
AC A.C. /eɪ si:/
DC D.C. /di: si:/

^

Examples

x + 1 x plus one
x -1 x minus one
x ± 1 x plus or minus one
xy x y;  x times y; x multiplied by y
(x — y)(x + y)  x minus y, x plus y
x/y x over y;  x divided by y;
x ÷ y x divided by y
x = 5 x equals 5;  x is equal to 5
x ≈ y x is approximately equal to y
x ≡ y x is equivalent to y;  x is identical with y
x ≠ y x is not equal to y
x > y  x is greater than y
x < y  x is less than y
x ≥ y x is greater than or equal to y
x ≤ y x is less than or equal to y
0 < x < 1 zero is less than x is less than 1; x is greater than zero and less than 1
0 ≤ x ≤ 1 zero is less than or equal to x is less than or equal to 1; x is greater than or equal to zero and less than or equal to 1
x squared
x cubed
x4 x to the fourth;  x to the power four
xn x to the n; x to the nth;  x to the power n
x-n x to the minus n;  x to the power of minus n
root x; square root x; the square root of x
the cube root of x
the fourth root of x
the nth root of x
(x + y)² x plus y all squared
(x/y)² x over y all squared
n! n factorial; factorial n
x% x percent
infinity
x ∝ y x varies as y; x is (directly) proportional to y
x ∝ 1/y x varies as one over y; x is indirectly proportional to y
x dot
x double dot
f(x) fx f of x; the function of x
f'(x) f dash x; the (first) derivative of with respect to x
f”x f double-dash x; the second derivative of f with respect to x
f”'(x) f triple-dash x; f treble-dash x; the third derivative of f with respect to x
f(4) f four x; the fourth derivative of f with respect to x
∂v the partial derivative of v
∂v
∂θ
delta v by delta theta, the partial derivative of v with respect to θ
²v
∂θ²
delta two v by delta theta squared; the second partial derivative of v with respect to θ
dv the derivative of v
dv
d v by d theta, the derivative of v with respect to theta
d²v
²
d 2 v by d theta squared, the second derivative of v with respect to theta,
integral
integral integral from zero to infinity
sum
the sum from i equals 1 to n
w.r.t. with respect to
logey log to the base e of y; log y to the base e; natural log (of) y
therefore
because
gives, approaches
Δx → 0 delta x approaches zero
lim
Δx→0
the limit as delta x approaches zero, the limit as delta x tends to zero
Lt
Δx→0
the limit as delta x approaches zero, the limit as delta x tends to zero
m/sec metres per second
x ∈ A x belongs to A; x is a member of A; x is an element of A
x∉ A x does not belong to A; x is not  a member of A; x is not an element of A
A⊂ B A is contained in B; A is a proper subset of B
A ⊆ B A is contained in B; A is a subset of B
A ⋂ B A intersection B
A ⋃ B A union B
cos x cos x; cosine x
sin x sine x
tan x tangent x, tan x
cosec x cosec x
sinh x shine x
cosh x cosh x
tanh x than x
|x| mod x; modulus x
18 ℃ eighteen degrees Centigrade
70 ℉ seventy degrees Fahrenheit

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Có nên dùng phủ định kép không?

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A double negative uses two negative words (in bold below) in the same clause to express a single negative idea:

We didn’t see nothing. [ = We saw nothing.]

She never danced with nobody. [ = She didn’t dance with anybody.]

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Có nên dùng phó từ để “phá” động từ nguyên thể?

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Xem thêm bài: Ôi, ngữ pháp! Đến dân bản ngữ cũng còn ỏm tỏi với nhau [2]


What are split infinitives?

Split infinitives happen when you put an adverb between to and a verb, for example:

She used to secretly admire him.

You have to really watch him.

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Một số trường hợp dùng giới từ ở cuối câu

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Were you taught that a preposition should never be placed at the end of a sentence? There are times when it would be rather awkward to organize a sentence in a way that would avoid doing this, for example:

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Tại sao nên dùng tiếng Anh tiêu chuẩn – standard English

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Standard English is the type of English that’s suitable for use in every type of written or spoken situation. The majority of words in English dictionaries and thesauruses are part of standard English.

The main advantage of using standard English is that it helps you to get your message across clearly and effectively, and to the widest range of people. It’s also more permanent than some other forms of language, such as slang, which often go out of fashion from one generation to the next.

Một số từ vựng “quá đát” trong tiếng Anh

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Some words that were common in the past are no longer in ordinary use but remain in our stock of words. Many dictionaries divide this type of vocabulary into two categories.

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