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Cách đọc ký hiệu toán học và khoa học trong tiếng Anh

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Common pronunciations (in British English – Gimson,1981) of mathematical and scientific symbols are given in the list below.

Symbols

+ plus /’plʌs/
minus /’maɪnəs/
± plus or minus /’plʌs  ɔ:  ‘maɪnəs/
x multiplied by /’mʌltɪplaɪd baɪ/
/ over; divided by /’əʊvə/ /dɪ’vaɪdəd/
÷ divided /dɪ’vaɪdəd/
= equals /’ɪ:kwəlz/
approximately, similar /ə’prɒksɪmətlɪ/ /’sɪmɪlə tʊ/
equivalent to; identical /ɪk’wɪvələnt tʊ/ /aɪ’dentɪkl tʊ/
not equal to /’nɒt ‘iːkwəl tʊ/
> greater than /’greɪtə ðən/
< less than /’les ðən/
greater than or equal to /’greɪtə ðən ər ‘iːkwəl tʊ/
less than or equal to /’les ðən ər’ iːkwəl tʊ/
not greater than /’nɒt ‘greɪtə ðən/
not less than /’nɒt ‘les ðən/
much greater than /’mʌʧ ‘greɪtə ðən/
much less than /’mʌʧ ‘les ðən/
perpendicular to /pɜːpən’dɪkjʊlə tʊ/
∣∣ parallel to /’pærəlel tʊ/
not equivalent to, not identical to /’nɒt ɪk’wɪvələnt tʊ/ /’nɒt aɪ’dentɪkl tʊ/
≄≉ not similar to /’nɒt ‘sɪmɪlə tʊ/
² squared /’skweəd/
³ cubed /’kju:bd/
4 to the fourth;  to the power four /tə ðə ‘fɔːθ/ /te ðə ‘pɑʊə fɔː/
n  to the n; to the nth; to the power n /tə ðɪ en; tə dɪ enθ; tə ðə pɑʊər en/
root; square root /ru:t/ /skweə ru:t/
cube root /kju:b ru:t/
fourth root /fɔːθ ruːt/
! factorial /fæk’tɔːrɪəl/
% percent /pə’sent/
infinity /ɪn’fɪnətɪ/
varies as; proportional to /’vɛərɪz/  /prə’pɔːʃənəl/
˙ dot /dɒt/
¨ double dot /dʌbl dɒt/
: is to, ratio of /reɪʃɪəʊ/
f(x) fx f; function /ef/ /’fʌŋkʃən/
f'(x) f dash; derivative /dæʃ/ /dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f”x f double-dash; second derivative /’dʌbl dæʃ/ /’sekənd dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f”'(x) f triple-dash; f treble-dash; third derivative /’trɪpl dæʃ/ / trebl dæʃ/ /θɜ:d dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f(4) f four; fourth derivative /fɔːθ dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
partial derivative, delta /paːʃəl dɪ’rɪvətɪv/ /deltə/
integral /’ɪntɪgrəl/
sum /sʌm/
w.r.t. with respect to /wɪð ‘rɪspekt/
log log /lɒg/
logx log to the base 2 of x /lɒg tə ðə beɪs tu: əv eks/
therefore /’ðɛəfɔː/
because /bɪ’kɒz/
gives, leads to, approaches /gɪvz/ /li:dz tʊ/ /əprəʊʧəz/
/ per /pɜ:/
belongs to; a member of;  an element of /bɪ’lɒŋz/ /’membə/ /’elɪmənt/
does not belong to; is not a member of; is not an element of /nɒt bɪ’lɒŋ/ /nɒt ə ‘membə/ /nɒt ən ‘elɪmənt/
contained in;  a proper subset of /kən’teɪnd ɪn/ /’prɒpə ‘sʌbset/
contained in; subset /’sʌbset/
intersection /’ɪntəsekʃən/
union /’juːnɪən/
for all /fə rɔ:l/
cos x cos x; cosine x /kɒz/
sin x sine x /saɪn/
tan x tangent x /tan/
cosec x cosec x /’kəʊsek/
sinh x shine x /’ʃaɪn/
cosh x cosh x /’kɒʃ/
tanh x than x /θæn/
|x| mod x; modulus x /mɒd/ /’mɒdjʊləs/
degrees Centigrade /dɪ’gri:z ‘sentɪgreɪd/
degrees Fahrenheit /dɪ’gri:z ‘færənhaɪt/
°K degrees Kelvin /dɪ’gri:z ‘kelvɪn/
0°K, –273.15 °C absolute zero /absəlu:t zi:rəʊ/
mm millimetre /’mɪlɪmiːtə/
cm centimetre /’sentɪmiːtə/
cc, cm³ cubic centimetre, centimetre cubed /’kjuːbɪk ‘sentɪmiːtə/ /’sentɪmiːtə ‘kju:bd/
m metre /’miːtə/
km kilometre /kɪ’lɒmɪtə/
mg milligram /’mɪlɪgræm/
g gram /græm/
kg kilogram /’kɪləgræm/
AC A.C. /eɪ si:/
DC D.C. /di: si:/

^

Examples

x + 1 x plus one
x -1 x minus one
x ± 1 x plus or minus one
xy x y;  x times y; x multiplied by y
(x — y)(x + y)  x minus y, x plus y
x/y x over y;  x divided by y;
x ÷ y x divided by y
x = 5 x equals 5;  x is equal to 5
x ≈ y x is approximately equal to y
x ≡ y x is equivalent to y;  x is identical with y
x ≠ y x is not equal to y
x > y  x is greater than y
x < y  x is less than y
x ≥ y x is greater than or equal to y
x ≤ y x is less than or equal to y
0 < x < 1 zero is less than x is less than 1; x is greater than zero and less than 1
0 ≤ x ≤ 1 zero is less than or equal to x is less than or equal to 1; x is greater than or equal to zero and less than or equal to 1
x squared
x cubed
x4 x to the fourth;  x to the power four
xn x to the n; x to the nth;  x to the power n
x-n x to the minus n;  x to the power of minus n
root x; square root x; the square root of x
the cube root of x
the fourth root of x
the nth root of x
(x + y)² x plus y all squared
(x/y)² x over y all squared
n! n factorial; factorial n
x% x percent
infinity
x ∝ y x varies as y; x is (directly) proportional to y
x ∝ 1/y x varies as one over y; x is indirectly proportional to y
x dot
x double dot
f(x) fx f of x; the function of x
f'(x) f dash x; the (first) derivative of with respect to x
f”x f double-dash x; the second derivative of f with respect to x
f”'(x) f triple-dash x; f treble-dash x; the third derivative of f with respect to x
f(4) f four x; the fourth derivative of f with respect to x
∂v the partial derivative of v
∂v
∂θ
delta v by delta theta, the partial derivative of v with respect to θ
²v
∂θ²
delta two v by delta theta squared; the second partial derivative of v with respect to θ
dv the derivative of v
dv
d v by d theta, the derivative of v with respect to theta
d²v
²
d 2 v by d theta squared, the second derivative of v with respect to theta,
integral
integral integral from zero to infinity
sum
the sum from i equals 1 to n
w.r.t. with respect to
logey log to the base e of y; log y to the base e; natural log (of) y
therefore
because
gives, approaches
Δx → 0 delta x approaches zero
lim
Δx→0
the limit as delta x approaches zero, the limit as delta x tends to zero
Lt
Δx→0
the limit as delta x approaches zero, the limit as delta x tends to zero
m/sec metres per second
x ∈ A x belongs to A; x is a member of A; x is an element of A
x∉ A x does not belong to A; x is not  a member of A; x is not an element of A
A⊂ B A is contained in B; A is a proper subset of B
A ⊆ B A is contained in B; A is a subset of B
A ⋂ B A intersection B
A ⋃ B A union B
cos x cos x; cosine x
sin x sine x
tan x tangent x, tan x
cosec x cosec x
sinh x shine x
cosh x cosh x
tanh x than x
|x| mod x; modulus x
18 ℃ eighteen degrees Centigrade
70 ℉ seventy degrees Fahrenheit

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Loanh quanh chuyện về một số ký hiệu trong tiếng Anh – Questions about symbols

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 Warm-up:

Trong giờ học “Giải phẫu sinh lý người”, một nữ sinh nọ mất trật tự nhiều lần. Ông giáo đã nhắc nhở nhưng không được, tức quá bèn quát:
– Này em kia, tôi sẽ đuổi ra khỏi lớp nếu em không trả lời được câu hỏi sau đây: “Bộ phận nào trong cơ thể người lúc bé nhất và lúc to nhất có thể tích chênh lệch nhau bẩy lần”.
Cô học trò suy nghĩ rồi đỏ mặt ấp úng không trả lời, chỉ cười “khi… khi”
– Sao không trả lời đi còn cười gì?
– “khi… khi”
– …!!!
– “khi… khi”
– Thôi đủ rồi! Em hãy ra khỏi lớp ngay vì không thuộc bài. Hãy nghe đây: “Đó là phổi, khi ta hít vào và thở ra thể tích chênh nhau gấp bẩy lần. Còn cái “khi khi” của cô chỉ có ba lần thôi”.


 

Is there a name for the dot above the letters i and j?

The dot is just called superscript dot. It was added to the letter i in the Middle Ages to distinguish the letter (in manuscripts) from adjacent vertical strokes in such letters as u, m, and n. J is a variant form of i which emerged at this time and subsequently became a separate letter.

Does the ‘¢’ in the US cent sign stand for ‘cent’?

Yes, it does. It dates back to the early 19th century. Writing a letter with the line through it is a common way of indicating that it is a currency symbol, and not just an ordinary letter of the alphabet.   Read the rest of this entry

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