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Các dạng thức rút gọn trong tiếng Anh – Informal Contractions in the English language

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Informal Contractions

A contraction is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters (actually, sounds).

In linguistic analysis, contractions should not be confused with abbreviations nor acronyms (including initialisms), with which they share some semantic andphonetic functions, though all three are connoted by the term “abbreviation” in loose parlance. Contraction is also distinguished from clipping, where beginnings and endings are omitted.

The definition overlaps with the grammatical term portmanteau (a linguistic blend), but a distinction can be made between a portmanteau and a contraction by noting that contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not, whereas a portmanteau word is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a singular concept which the portmanteau describes.

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[WARNING! This song may not be appropriate for some ages and audiences].

LYRICS

Whatcha doin’ tonight, baby?
I kinda like your style, lady.
Wanna hang out for a while, honey?
I’m gonna drive you wild, so try me!
Gimme everything you’ve got, baby.
Lemme see the lot, lady.
We really gotta rock, honey.

And it goes somethin’ like this…

Whatcha, Kinda, Wanna
Gonna, Gimme, Lemme, Gotta

Whatcha, Kinda, Wanna
Gonna, Gimme, Lemme, Gotta

Oh, let’s do it again

Whatcha doin’ tonight, baby?
I kinda like your style, lady.
Wanna hang out for a while, honey?
I’m gonna drive you wild, so try me!
Gimme everything you’ve got, baby.
Lemme see the lot, lady.
We really gotta rock, honey.

And it goes somethin’ like this…

Whatcha, Kinda, Wanna
Gonna, Gimme, Lemme, Gotta

Whatcha, Kinda, Wanna
Gonna, Gimme, Lemme, Gotta

All over again
Uhuh


Informal Contractions

Informal contractions often combine with the following words:

  • + to
  • + you
  • + of
  • + would have
  • miscellaneous

Since informal contractions are seldom written, the spellings below are general phonetic spellings and are not standardized.

Contractions with “to”

+ to
uncontracted form contraction IPA example sentence
going to gonna /ɡʌnə/ Play She’s gonna call you later.
want to wanna /wɔnə/ Play They wanna buy a house.
have to hafta /hæftə/ Play We hafta ask for help.
has to hasta /hæstə/ Play He hasta hire an assistant.
had to hadta /hædtə/ Play Julia hadta cook dinner for her kids.
used to useta /justə/ Play Carrie useta smoke, but she quit.
got to gotta /ɡɑdə/ Play You’ve gotta keep trying.

Contractions with “you”

+ you
uncontracted form contraction IPA example sentence
do you dya /djə/ Play Dya think she’ll come?
did you didja /dɪʤə/ Play Didja get your hair cut?
could you couldja /kʊʤə/ Play Couldja drive me to the store?
would you wouldja /wʊʤə/ Play Wouldja open the window?
how did you howdja /haʊʤə/ Play Howdja do that?
what do you whadaya /wʌdəjə/ Play Whadaya do about an overdue library book?
where did you wheredja /wɛrʤə/ Play Wheredja put my keys?
what did you whadja /wʌʤə/ Play Whadja think about the movie?

Contractions with “of”

+ of
uncontracted form contraction IPA example sentences
kind of kinda /kɑɪndə/ Play It’s kinda hard to imagine their lifestyle.
lot of lotta /lɑdə/ Play A lotta kids are bilingual.
lots of lotsa /lɑtsə/ Play Lotsa studies support bilingual education.

Contractions with “would have”

+ would have
uncontracted form contraction IPA example sentence
she would have sheda /ʃidə/ Play Sheda liked more time to prepare.
he would have heda /hidə/ Play I doubt that heda been able to play so well if he hadn’t practiced so often.
we would have weda /widə/ Play Weda spent more time in Seville if we could have.
I would have Ida /ɑɪdə/ Play Ida given it more thought before making a decision.
they would have theyda /ðeɪdə/ Play She wishes theyda included more examples.
you would have youda /judə/ Play Youda done the same thing if he asked you to.

Informal contraction with the word have can also include the v sound in the pronunciation. For instance,sheda /ʃidə/ could also be pronounced sheduv /ʃidəv/.

Other informal contractions

miscellaneous
uncontracted form contraction IPA example sentences
come on cmon /kmɑn/ Play Cmon; we’re leaving right now.
don’t know dunno /dənoʊ/ Play You dunno what you’re doing.
let me lemme /lɛmi/ Play Lemme help you with that.
some more s’more /smɔr/ Play Could I have s’more cookies?
must have musta /mʌsdə/ Play She musta forgotten to charge her cell phone.
might have mighta /mɑɪdə/ Play Larry mighta been in the shower when you called.

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