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Monthly Archives: Tháng Mười 2014

Tại sao cần hiểu và dùng đúng tổ hợp từ trong tiếng Anh (collocation)

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Clip on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


[Xem thêm bài: Tổ hợp từ – Collocation -trong tiếng Anh]

What is a collocation?

A collocation is a group of words that usually go together. For example, in English, we usually say ‘heavy rain’. It’s correct grammatically to say ‘strong rain’ or ‘big rain’, but both of these sound completely strange. A native English speaker would never say ‘big rain’. If you use the normal collocation (‘heavy rain’) your English will sound a lot better and more natural and it will be easier for native speakers to understand you. Collocations are very, very important.

See more below:

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Trọng âm câu – sentence stress – yếu tố cực kỳ quan trọng trong nói tiếng Anh

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Clip on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


Xem thêm bài: Trọng âm từ – yếu tố vô cùng quan trọng khi nói tiếng Anh


Sentence Stress in English

Sentence stress is the music of spoken English. Like word stress, sentence stress can help you to understand spoken English, especially when spoken fast.

Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or “beat”. You remember that word stress is accent on one syllable within a word. Sentence stress is accent on certain words within a sentence.

Most sentences have two types of word:

  • content words
  • structure words

See more below:

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Trọng âm từ – Word stress – yếu tố vô cùng quan trọng khi nói tiếng Anh

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Clip by Rachel’s English on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


Xem thêm bài: Trọng âm câu – sentence stress – yếu tố cực kỳ quan trọng trong nói tiếng Anh


 

Word stress is your magic key to understanding spoken English. Native speakers of English use word stress naturally. Word stress is so natural for them that they don’t even know they use it. Non-native speakers who speak English to native speakers without using word stress, encounter two problems:

  1. They find it difficult to understand native speakers, especially those speaking fast.
  2. The native speakers may find it difficult to understand them.

See more below:

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Lời khuyên về ngữ điệu và tốc độ khi nói tiếng Anh – Intonation and Speed of speaking English

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Clip by Rachel’s English on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


Speed of speaking

A common mistake of people who obtain English fluency with improper pronunciation and intonation is the speed in which they speak. Because they do not have perfect pronunciation and intonation, it is difficult to understand people who speak too fast. This is the biggest problem I have seen from people who gain confidence in speaking.

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Một số lời khuyên luyện nói tiếng Anh – Tips on English speaking

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Julian’s clip on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


[No advice works, if it ever does, for all. So sleep on it before picking any, inclusive :).]

1. Don’t study grammar too much

This rule might sound strange to many ESL students, but it is one of the most important rules. If you want to pass examinations, then study grammar. However, if you want to become fluent in English, then you should try to learn English without studying the grammar.

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10 lời khuyên về đọc hiểu nói chung – English reading comprehension

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Clip by GOL on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.

[No advice works, if it ever does, for all. So, sleep on it before picking any, inclusive]


 

In the modern age of information, reading truly is a fundamental survival skill. Here are ten tips that anyone can use to improve their reading skills:

1. You don’t have to be a great reader to get the point.

Some people read fast and remember everything. Others read slowly and take a couple of times to get all the information. It doesn’t matter, really, so long as when you read, you get the information you’re seeking.

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Cách luyện đọc hiểu tiếng Anh – Reading comprehension

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Clip by KaplanSATACT on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


Improving your reading skills will reduce unnecessary reading time and enable you to read in a more focused and selective manner. You will also be able to increase your levels of understanding and concentration. This guide shows you how to read with greater efficiency and effectiveness by using a range of different reading skills.

See more below:

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100 lời khuyên cho người học tiếng Anh

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Bài viết của cô Hester đăng trên http://www.langports.com/

Một số lời khuyên dành cho người học tiếng Anh. Không hẳn đã đúng cả, nhưng cũng rất bổ ích. Cảm ơn Hester!

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Một số thành ngữ thông dụng trong tiếng Anh – Idioms

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Increase your vocabulary and speak more natural English by studying the idioms and expressions below. These are some of the most common expressions in English. Study the example sentences which show how idioms are used in context when you speak English. Have fun!

See the idioms below:

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Mẹo đọc báo tiếng Anh

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I have always encouraged students to read newspaper articles as it is something that most people can find time to do in their busy lives, it also helps to consolidate your English. Newspapers are a great source of vocabulary, particularly phrasal verbs in the tabloid press. I am going to pass on some tips about newspaper language to help make them more accessible.

I thought I would start by explaining some of the terminology and features of newspaper language. In the UK we have tabloid and broadsheet newspapers.

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Một số thành ngữ thông dụng về thể thao

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Clip by English Lessons with Alex (engVid AlexESLvid) on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


 

Heather, a trainer at the school, has written about her favourite football team and sporting idioms.

“Having fretted (worried) about my football team, the mighty (strong and powerful) Chelsea, potentially not winning any silverware (cups or trophies) this season, I was very happy to spend the sunniest day so far this year watching Frank (Lampard) score the winning goal against Everton in the F.A. Cup final. I love sport, none more than football, which started me thinking about how many sporting idioms we have in English. Although there are idioms that originate from a variety of sports, many used in the UK are from boxing, football, cricket, golf and horseracing.”

See if you can guess the meanings of the idioms below before you read the explanation.

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Hãy nói tiếng Anh một cách “tự nhiên” nhất – Speak natural English

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Clip by Benjamin’s English Classes (engVid) on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


 

Most students and teachers spend a lot of time and effort correcting mistakes.  I’m sure you agree that this is an important part of the language-learning process.  However, it’s also important to improve your English by using the words and phrases which native speakers actually use.  So, in this language tip I’m going to show you how to make your English more ‘English’!

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Cách đọc một số ký hiệu và công thức hóa học phổ biến bằng tiếng Anh

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Clip by David Newman on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


Symbols

Symbol Name Pronunciation
Ac Actinium /ækt’ɪnɪəm/
Ag Silver /’sɪlvə/
Al Aluminium /æljʊ’mɪnɪəm/
Am Americium /əmə’risɪəm/
Ar Argon /’ɑːgɒn/
As Arsenic /’ɑːsnɪk/
At Astatine /’æstəti:n/
Au Gold /’gəʊld/
B Boron /’bɔːrɒn/
Ba Barium /ˈbəɛrɪəm/
Be Beryllium /bəˈrɪlɪəm/
Bh Bohrium ˈbɔ:rɪəm/
Bi Bismuth /ˈbɪzməθ/
Bk Berkelium /ˈbɜ:klɪəm/
Br Bromine /ˈbrəʊmiːn/
C Carbon /ˈkɑ:bən/
Ca Calcium /ˈkælsɪəm/
Cd Cadmium /ˈkælmɪəm/
Ce Cerium /ˈsi:rɪəm/
Cf Californium /kælɪˈfɔ:nɪəm/
Cl Chlorine /ˈklɔ:riːn/
Cm Curium /ˈkjuːrɪəm/
Co Cobalt /ˈkəʊbɒlt/
Cr Chromium /ˈkrəʊmɪəm/
Cs Caesium /ˈsiːzɪəm/
Cu Copper /ˈkɒpə/
Db Dubnium /ˈdʌbnɪəm/
Ds Darmstadtium /dɑ:mˈstætɪəm/
Dy Dysprosium /dɪsˈprəʊzɪəm/
Er Erbium /ˈɜ:bɪəm/
Es Einsteinium /aɪnˈstaɪnɪəm/
Eu Europium /ju:ˈrəʊpɪəm/
F Fluorine /ˈflʊəriːn/
Fe Iron /ˈaɪən/
Fm Fermium /ˈfɜ:mɪəm/
Fr Francium /ˈfrænsɪəm/
Ga Gallium /ˈgælɪəm/
Gd Gadolinium /gædəˈlɪnɪəm/
Ge Germanium /dʒəˈmeɪnɪəm/
H Hydrogen /ˈhaɪdrəʤən/
He Helium /ˈhi:lɪəm/
Hf Hafnium /ˈhæfnɪəm/
Hg Mercury /ˈmɜ:kjʊrɪ/
Ho Holmium /ˈhəʊlmɪəm/
Hs Hassium /ˈhæsɪəm/
I Iodine /ˈaɪədiːn/
In Indium /ˈɪndɪəm/
Ir Iridium /ɪˈrɪdɪəm/
K Potassium /pəˈtæsɪəm/
Kr Krypton /ˈkrɪptən/
La Lanthanum /ˈlænθənəm/
Li Lithium /ˈlɪθɪəm/
Lr Lawrencium /ləˈrensɪəm/
Lu Lutetium /ljuːˈtiːʃəm/
Md Mendelevium /mendəˈlɪvɪəm/
Mg Magnesium /mægˈniːzɪəm/
Mn Manganese /ˈmæŋgəniːz/
Mo Molybdenum /məˈlɪbdənəm/
Mt Meitnerium /maɪtˈnɜ:rɪəm/
N Nitrogen /ˈnaɪtrədʒən/
Na Sodium /ˈsəʊdɪəm/
Nb Niobium /naɪˈəʊbɪəm/
Nd Neodymium /niːəʊˈdɪmɪəm/
Ne Neon /ˈniːɒn/
Ni Nickel /ˈnɪkəl/
No Nobelium /nəʊˈbiːlɪəm/
Np Neptunium /nepˈtjuːnɪəm/
O Oxygen /ˈɒksɪdʒən/
Os Osmium /ˈɒzmɪəm/
P Phosphorus /ˈfɒsfərəs/
Pa Protactinium /prəʊtækˈtɪnɪəm/
Pb Lead /ˈled/
Pd Palladium /pəˈleɪdɪəm/
Pm Promethium /prəˈmiːθɪəm/
Po Polonium /pəˈləʊnɪəm/
Pr Praseodymium /preɪzɪəʊˈdɪmɪəm/
Pt Platinum /ˈplætɪnəm/
Pu Plutonium /pluːˈtəʊnɪəm/
Ra Radium /ˈreɪdɪəm/
Rb Rubidium /ruːˈbɪdɪəm/
Re Rhenium /ˈriːnɪəm/
Rf Rutherfordium /rʌðəˈfɔ:dɪəm/
Rg Roentgenium /rɒntˈgenɪəm/
Rh Rhodium /ˈrəʊdɪəm/
Rn Radon /ˈreɪdɒn/
Ru Ruthenium /ruːˈθiːnɪəm/
S Sulphur /ˈsʌlfə/
Sb Antimony /’æntɪmənɪ/
Sc Scandium /ˈskændɪəm/
Se Selenium /səˈliːnɪəm/
Sg Seaborgium /siːˈbɔ:gɪəm/
Si Silicon /ˈsɪlɪkən/
Sm Samarium /səˈmɛərɪəm/
Sn Tin /ˈtɪn/
Sr Strontium /ˈstrɒntɪəm/
Ta Tantalum /ˈtæntələm/
Tb Terbium /ˈtɜ:bɪəm/
Tc Technetium /tekˈniːʃɪəm/
Te Tellurium /təˈlʊərɪəm/
Th Thorium /ˈθɔ:rɪəm/
Ti Titanium /tɪˈteɪnɪəm/
Tl Thallium /ˈθælɪəm/
Tm Thulium /ˈθjuːlɪəm/
U Uranium /jʊˈreɪnɪəm/
Uub Ununbium /juːˈnʌnbɪəm/
Uuh Ununhexium /ˌjuːnənˈheksɪəm/
Uuo Ununoctium ˌ/juːnəˈnɒktɪəm/
Uup Ununpentium /juːnənˈpentɪəm/
Uuq Ununquadium /juːnənˈkwɒdɪəm/
Uut Ununtrium /juːˈnʌntrɪəm/
V Vanadium /vəˈneɪdɪəm/
W Tungsten /ˈtʌŋstən/
Xe Xenon /ˈzenɒn/
Y Yttrium /ˈɪtrɪəm/
Yb Ytterbium /ɪˈtɜːbɪəm/
Zn Zinc /ˈzɪŋk/
Zr Zirconium /zɜːˈkəʊnɪəm/

 

Formulae

 

CO2 Carbon dioxide
CO Carbon monoxide
NO2 Nitrogen dioxide
N2O Dinitrogen oxide
NO Nitrogen oxide
N2O4 Dinitrogen tetroxide
SO2 Sulphur dioxide
SO3 Sulphur trioxide
H2SO4 Suphuric acid
HCl Hydrochloric acid
HNO3 Nitric acid
PCl5 Phosphorus pentachloride

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Cách đọc phản ứng hóa học bằng tiếng Anh

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Reaction Reading by Elementary Entities (Formula Units) Reading by Mole (NA of elementary entities or formula units)
2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O 2 molecules of hydrogen react with 1 molecule of oxygen to form 2 molecules of water 2 moles of hydrogen react with 1 mole

of oxygen to form 2 moles of water

CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O 1 molecule of methane reacts with 2 molecules of oxygen to form 1 molecule of carbon dioxide and 2 molecules of water 1 mole of methane reacts with 2 moles of oxygen to form 1 mole of carbon dioxide and 2 moles of water
2 Na + 2 H2O → 2 NaOH + H2 2 atoms of sodium react with 2 molecules of water to form 2 formula units of sodium hydroxide and 1 molecule of hydrogen 2 moles of sodium reacts with 2 moles of water to form 2 moles of sodium hydroxide and 1 mole of hydrogen
Ca + 2 H2O → Ca(OH)2 + H2 1 atom of calcium reacts with 2 molecules of water to form 1 formula unit of calcium hydroxide and 1 molecule of hydrogen 1 mole of calcium reacts with 2 moles of water to form 1 mole of calcium hydroxide and 1 mole of hydrogen
2 NaBr + Cl2 → 2 NaCl + Br2 2 formula units of sodium bromide react with 1 molecule of chlorine to form 2 formula units of sodium chloride and 1 molecule of bromine 2 moles of sodium bromide react with 1 mole of chlorine to form 2 moles of sodium chloride and 1 mole of bromine
AgNO3 + KCl → AgCl↓ + KNO3 1 formula unit of silver nitrate reacts with 1 formula unit of potassium chloride to form 1 formula unit of silver chloride (precipitate) and 1 formula unit of potassium nitrate 1 mole of silver nitrate reacts with 1 mole of potassium chloride to form 1 mole of silver chloride (precipitate) and 1 mole of potassium nitrate
2AgNO3 +CaBr2→2 AgBr↓+ Ca(NO3)2 2 formula units of silver nitrate react with 1 formula unit of calcium bromide to form 2 formula units of silver bromide (precipitate) and 1 formula unit of calcium nitrate 2 moles of silver nitrate react with 1 mole of calcium bromide to form 2 moles of silver bromide (precipitate) and 1 mole of calcium nitrate
Na2CO3 + 2HCl→2NaCl + CO2↑ +H2O 1 formula unit of sodium carbonate reacts with 2 formula units of hydrochloric acid to form 2 formula units of sodium chloride, 1 molecule of carbon dioxide (gas), and 1 molecule of water 1 mole of sodium carbonate reacts with 2 moles of hydrochloric acid to form 2 moles of sodium chloride, 1 mole of carbon dioxide (gas), and 1 mole of water

 

Reaction Reading by Mole (NA of elementary entities or formula units) Reading by Mass (Molar mass of each substance is needed)
2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O 2 moles of hydrogen react with 1 mole of oxygen to form 2 moles of water 4 g of hydrogen react with 32 g of oxygen to form 36 g of water
CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O 1 mole of methane reacts with 2 moles of oxygen to form 1 mole of carbon dioxide and 2 moles of water 16 g of methane react with 32 g of oxygen to form 44 g of carbon dioxide and 36 g of water
2 Na + 2 H2O → 2 NaOH + H2 2 moles of sodium reacts with 2 moles of water to form 2 moles of sodium hydroxide and 1 mole of hydrogen 46 g of sodium react with 36 g of water to form

80 g of sodium hydroxide and 2 g of hydrogen

Ca + 2 H2O → Ca(OH)2 + H2 1 mole of calcium reacts with 2 moles of water to form 1 mole of calcium hydroxide and 1 mole of hydrogen 40 g of calcium react with 36 g of water to form

74 g of calcium hydroxide and 2 g of hydrogen

2 NaBr + Cl2 → 2 NaCl + Br2 2 moles of sodium bromide react with 1 mole of chlorine to form 2 moles of sodium chloride and 1 mole of bromine 206 g of sodium bromide react with 71 g of chlorine to form 117 g of sodium chloride and 160 g of bromine
AgNO3 + KCl → AgCl↓ + KNO3 1 mole of silver nitrate reacts with 1 mole of potassium chloride to form 1 mole of silver chloride (precipitate) and 1 mole of potassium nitrate 170 g of silver nitrate react with 74 g of potassium chloride to form 143 g of silver chloride (precipitate) and 101 g of potassium nitrate
2AgNO3 +CaBr2→2 AgBr↓+ Ca(NO3)2 2 moles of silver nitrate react with 1 mole of calcium bromide to form 2 moles of silver bromide (precipitate) and 1 mole of calcium nitrate 240 g of silver nitrate react with 200 g of calcium bromide to form 356 g of silver bromide (precipitate) and 184 of calcium nitrate
Na2CO3 + 2HCl→2NaCl + CO2↑ +H2O 1 mole of sodium carbonate reacts with 2 moles of hydrochloric acid to form 2 moles of sodium chloride, 1 mole of carbon dioxide (gas), and 1 mole of water 106 g of sodium carbonate reacts with 73 g of hydrochloric acid to form 117 g of sodium chloride, 44 g of carbon dioxide (gas), and 18 g of water

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Cốt yếu trong phát âm tiếng Anh – English pronunciation essentials

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Clip rất hữu ích về phát âm tiếng Anh

Clip by Crown Academy of English on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


The pronunciations given are those in use among educated urban speakers of standard English in Britain and the United States. While avoiding strongly regionally or socially marked forms, they are intended to include the most common variants for each word. The keywords given are to be understood as pronounced in such speech.

This key is to the pronunciations given in revised entries. For pronunciations in unrevised entries, see this key.

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Cách đọc phân số, thập phân, dấu mũ, số đếm, số thứ tự trong tiếng Anh

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Fractions

½ a half /ə ‘hɑ:f/
¼ a quarter /ə ‘kwɔːtə/
¾ three quarters /θriː ‘kwɔːtəz/
a third /ə ‘θɜ:d/
two thirds /tu: ‘θɜ:dz/
a fifth /ə ‘fɪfθ/
two fifths /tu: ‘fɪfθs/
three fifths /θriː ‘fɪfθs/
four fifths /fɔː ‘fɪfθs/
a sixth /ə ‘sɪksθ/
five sixths /faɪv ‘sɪksθs/
an eighth /ən ‘eɪtθ/
three eighths /θriː ‘eɪtθs/
five eighths /faɪv ‘eɪtθs/
seven eighths /sevən ‘eɪtθs/

 

Decimal Fractions

0.1 nought point one /nɔ:t pɔɪnt wʌn/
0.01 nought point oh one /nɔ:t pɔɪnt əʊ wʌn/
0.0001 nought point oh oh oh one /ten pɔɪnt əʊ əʊ əʊ wʌn/
1.1 one point one /wʌn pɔɪnt wʌn/
1.2 one point two /wʌn pɔɪnt tu:/
1.23 one point two three /wʌn pɔɪnt tu: θri:/
1.0123 one point oh one two three /wʌn pɔɪnt əʊ wʌn tu: θri:/
10.01 ten point oh one /ten pɔɪnt əʊ wʌn/
21.57 twenty-one point five seven /’twentɪ wʌn pɔɪnt  faɪv ‘sevən/
2.6666666666…. two point six recurring /tu: pɔɪnt  sɪks rɪ’kɜ:rɪŋ/
2.612361236123… two point six one two three recurring /tu: pɔɪnt  sɪks wʌn tu: θri: rɪ’kɜ:rɪŋ/
2.5 million two point five million /tu: pɔɪnt  faɪv ‘mɪljən/

 

SI Units: Prefixes

 

Prefix Symbol 10n Long/Short Scale
yotta (gr. okto – eight) Y 1024 Quadrillion/Septillion
zetta (lat. septem – seven) Z 1021 Trilliard/Sextillion
eksa (gr. ex – six) E 1018 Trillion/Quintillion
peta (gr. penta – five) P 1015 Billiard/Quadrillion
tera (gr. teras – monster) T 1012 Billion/Trillion
giga (gr. gigas – giant) G 109 Milliard/Billion
mega (gr. megas – great) M 106 Million/Million
kilo (gr. khilioi – thousand) k 10³ Thousand/Thousand
hecto (gr. hekaton – hundred) h 10² Hundred/Hundred
deca (gr. deka – ten) da 101 Ten/Ten
100 One/One
decy (lat. decimus – tenth) d 10-1 Tenth/Tenth
centy (lac. centum – hundredth) c 10-2 Hundredth/Hundredth
milli (lac. mille – thousand) m 10-3 Thousandth/Thousandth
mikro (gr. mikros – small) µ 10-6 Millionth/Millionth
nano (gr. nanos – dwarf) n 10-9 Milliardth/Billionth
pico (it. piccolo – small) p 10-12 Billionth/Trillionth
femto (den. femten – fifteen) f 10-15 Billiardth/Quadrillionth
atto (den. atten – eighteen) a 10-18 Trillionth/Quintillionth
zepto (lat. septem – seven) z 10-21 Trilliardth/Sextillionth
yokto (gr. okto – eight) y 10-24 Quadrillionth/Septillionth

 

Cardinal Numbers

1 one /wʌn/
2 two /tu:/
3 three /θri:/
4 four /fɔː/
5 five /faɪv/
6 six /sɪks/
7 seven /’sevən/
8 eight /eɪt/
9 nine /naɪn/
10 ten /ten/
11 eleven /ɪ’levən/
12 twelve /twelv/
13 thirteen /θɜ:’ti:n/
14 fourteen /fɔː’ti:n/
15 fifteen /fɪf’ti:n/
16 sixteen /sɪkst’i:n/
17 seventeen /seven’ti:n/
18 eighteen /eɪ’ti:n/
19 nineteen /naɪn’ti:n/
20 twenty /’twentɪ/
21 twenty-one /twentɪ’wʌn/
22 twenty-two /twentɪ’tu:/
23 twenty-three /twentɪ’θri:/
24 twenty-four /twentɪ’fɔː/
25 twenty-five /twentɪ’faɪv/
26 twenty-six /twentɪ’sɪks/
27 twenty-seven /twentɪ’sevən/
28 twenty-eight /twentɪ’eɪt/
29 twenty-nine /twentɪ’naɪn/
30 thirty /’θɜ:tɪ/
40 forty /’fɔːtɪ/
50 fifty /’fɪftɪ/
60 sixty /’sɪkstɪ/
70 seventy /’sevəntɪ/
80 eighty /’eɪtɪ/
90 ninety /’naɪntɪ/
100 a hundred; one hundred /ə ‘hʌndrəd/ /wʌn ‘hʌndrəd/
101 a hundred and one /ə ‘hʌndrəd ən wʌn/
102 a hundred and two /ə ‘hʌndrəd ən tu:/
110 a hundred and ten /ə ‘hʌndrəd ən ten/
120 a hundred and twenty /ə ‘hʌndrəd ən ‘twentɪ/
200 two hundred /tu: ‘hʌndrəd/
300 three hundred /θri:  ‘hʌndrəd/
400 four hundred /fɔː ‘hʌndrəd/
500 five hundred /faɪv ‘hʌndrəd/
600 six hundred /sɪks ‘hʌndrəd/
700 seven hundred /’sevən ‘hʌndrəd/
800 eight hundred /eɪt ‘hʌndrəd/
900 nine hundred /naɪn ‘hʌndrəd/
1 000 a thousand, one thousand /ə θ’ɑʊzənd/ /wʌn ‘θɑʊzənd/
1 001 a thousand and one /ə ‘θɑʊzənd ən wʌn/
1 010 a thousand and ten /ə ‘θɑʊzənd ən ten/
1 020 a thousand and twenty /ə ‘θɑʊzənd ən ‘twentɪ/
1 100 one thousand, one hunded /wʌn ‘θɑʊzənd wʌn ‘hʌndrəd/
1 101 one thousand, one hundred and one /wʌn ‘θɑʊzənd wʌn ‘hʌndrəd ən wʌn/
1 110 one thousand, one hundred and ten /wʌn ‘θɑʊzənd wʌn ‘hʌndrəd ən ten/
9 999 nine thousand, nine hundred and ninety-nine /naɪn ‘θɑʊzənd naɪn ‘hʌndrəd ən ‘naɪntɪ ‘naɪn/
10 000 ten thousand /ten ‘θɑʊzənd/
15 356 fifteen thousand, three hundred and fifty six /’fɪfti:n ‘θɑʊzənd θri: ‘hʌndrəd ən ‘fɪftɪ sɪks/
100 000 a hundred thousand /ə ‘hʌndrəd ‘θɑʊzənd/
1 000 000 a million /ə ‘mɪljən/
100 000 000 a hundred million /ə ‘hʌndrəd ‘mɪljən/
1 000 000 000 a billion /ə ‘bɪljən/
100 000 000 000 a hundred billion /ə ‘hʌndrəd ‘bɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 a trillion /ə ‘trɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 a quadrillion /ə kwɒdrɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 a quintillian /ə kwɪn’tɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 a sextillion /ə seks’tɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 a septillion /ə sep’tɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 an ocillion /ən ɒkt’tɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 a nonillion /ə nɒn’ɪljən/
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 a decillion /ə de’sɪljən/

 

Ordinal Numbers

1st first /fɜ:st/
2nd second /’sekənd/
3rd third /θɜ:d/
4th fourth /fɔ:θ/
5th fifth /fɪfθ/
6th sixth /sɪksθ/
7th seventh /’sevənθ/
8th eighth /eɪtθ/
9th ninth /naɪnθ/
10th tenth /tenθ/
11th eleventh /ɪ’levənθ/
12th twelfth /’twelfθ/
13th thirteenth /θɜ:’ti:nθ/
14th fourtheenth /fɔː’ti:nθ/
15th fidteenth /fɪf’ti:nθ/
16th sixteenth /sɪks’ti:nθ/
17th seventeenth /seven’ti:nθ/
18th eighteenth /eɪ’ti:nθ/
19th nineteenth /naɪn’ti:nθ/
20th twentieth /’twentɪəθ/
21st twenty-first /twentɪ’fɜ:st/
22nd twenty-second /twentɪ’sekənd/
23rd twenty-third /twentɪ’θɜ:d/
24th twenty-fourth /twentɪ’fɔ:θ/
25th twenty-fifth /twentɪ’fɪfθ/
26th twenty-sixth /twentɪ’sɪksθ/
27th twenty-seventh /twentɪ’sevənθ/
28th twenty-eighth /twentɪ’eɪtθ/
29th twenty-ninth /twentɪ’naɪnθ/
30th thirtieth /’θɜːtɪəθ/
31st thirty-first /θɜːtɪ’fɜ:st/
40th fortieth /’fɔ:tɪəθ/
50th fiftieth /’fɪftɪəθ/
100th hundredth /’hʌndrədθ/
1 000th thousandth /’θɑʊzəndθ/
1 000 000th miilionth /’mɪljənθ/

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Cách đọc chữ cái Hy Lạp thông dụng bằng tiếng Anh

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Greek alphabet

Α α alpha /’ælfə/
Β β beta /’bi:tə/
Γ γ gamma /’gæmə/
Δ δ delta /’deltə/
Ε ε epsilon /’epsilən/
Ζ ζ zeta /’ziːtə/
Η η eta /’iːtə/
Θ θ theta /’θiːtə/
Ι ι iota /aɪ’əʊtə/
Κ κ kappa /’kæpə/
Λ λ lamda /’læmdə/
Μ μ mu /’mjuː/
Ν ν nu /’njuː/
Ξ ξ xi /’ksaɪ/
Ο ο omicron /’əʊmɪkrən/
Π π pi /’paɪ/
Ρ ρς rho /’rəʊ/
Σ σ sigma /’sɪgmə/
Τ τ tau /’tɑʊ/
Υ υ upsilon /’jʊpsɪlən/
Φ φ phi /’faɪ/
Χ χ chi /’kaɪ/
Ψ ψ psi /’psaɪ/
Ω ω omega /’əʊmɪgə/

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Cách đọc ký hiệu toán học và khoa học trong tiếng Anh

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Common pronunciations (in British English – Gimson,1981) of mathematical and scientific symbols are given in the list below.

Symbols

+ plus /’plʌs/
minus /’maɪnəs/
± plus or minus /’plʌs  ɔ:  ‘maɪnəs/
x multiplied by /’mʌltɪplaɪd baɪ/
/ over; divided by /’əʊvə/ /dɪ’vaɪdəd/
÷ divided /dɪ’vaɪdəd/
= equals /’ɪ:kwəlz/
approximately, similar /ə’prɒksɪmətlɪ/ /’sɪmɪlə tʊ/
equivalent to; identical /ɪk’wɪvələnt tʊ/ /aɪ’dentɪkl tʊ/
not equal to /’nɒt ‘iːkwəl tʊ/
> greater than /’greɪtə ðən/
< less than /’les ðən/
greater than or equal to /’greɪtə ðən ər ‘iːkwəl tʊ/
less than or equal to /’les ðən ər’ iːkwəl tʊ/
not greater than /’nɒt ‘greɪtə ðən/
not less than /’nɒt ‘les ðən/
much greater than /’mʌʧ ‘greɪtə ðən/
much less than /’mʌʧ ‘les ðən/
perpendicular to /pɜːpən’dɪkjʊlə tʊ/
∣∣ parallel to /’pærəlel tʊ/
not equivalent to, not identical to /’nɒt ɪk’wɪvələnt tʊ/ /’nɒt aɪ’dentɪkl tʊ/
≄≉ not similar to /’nɒt ‘sɪmɪlə tʊ/
² squared /’skweəd/
³ cubed /’kju:bd/
4 to the fourth;  to the power four /tə ðə ‘fɔːθ/ /te ðə ‘pɑʊə fɔː/
n  to the n; to the nth; to the power n /tə ðɪ en; tə dɪ enθ; tə ðə pɑʊər en/
root; square root /ru:t/ /skweə ru:t/
cube root /kju:b ru:t/
fourth root /fɔːθ ruːt/
! factorial /fæk’tɔːrɪəl/
% percent /pə’sent/
infinity /ɪn’fɪnətɪ/
varies as; proportional to /’vɛərɪz/  /prə’pɔːʃənəl/
˙ dot /dɒt/
¨ double dot /dʌbl dɒt/
: is to, ratio of /reɪʃɪəʊ/
f(x) fx f; function /ef/ /’fʌŋkʃən/
f'(x) f dash; derivative /dæʃ/ /dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f”x f double-dash; second derivative /’dʌbl dæʃ/ /’sekənd dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f”'(x) f triple-dash; f treble-dash; third derivative /’trɪpl dæʃ/ / trebl dæʃ/ /θɜ:d dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
f(4) f four; fourth derivative /fɔːθ dɪ’rɪvətɪv/
partial derivative, delta /paːʃəl dɪ’rɪvətɪv/ /deltə/
integral /’ɪntɪgrəl/
sum /sʌm/
w.r.t. with respect to /wɪð ‘rɪspekt/
log log /lɒg/
logx log to the base 2 of x /lɒg tə ðə beɪs tu: əv eks/
therefore /’ðɛəfɔː/
because /bɪ’kɒz/
gives, leads to, approaches /gɪvz/ /li:dz tʊ/ /əprəʊʧəz/
/ per /pɜ:/
belongs to; a member of;  an element of /bɪ’lɒŋz/ /’membə/ /’elɪmənt/
does not belong to; is not a member of; is not an element of /nɒt bɪ’lɒŋ/ /nɒt ə ‘membə/ /nɒt ən ‘elɪmənt/
contained in;  a proper subset of /kən’teɪnd ɪn/ /’prɒpə ‘sʌbset/
contained in; subset /’sʌbset/
intersection /’ɪntəsekʃən/
union /’juːnɪən/
for all /fə rɔ:l/
cos x cos x; cosine x /kɒz/
sin x sine x /saɪn/
tan x tangent x /tan/
cosec x cosec x /’kəʊsek/
sinh x shine x /’ʃaɪn/
cosh x cosh x /’kɒʃ/
tanh x than x /θæn/
|x| mod x; modulus x /mɒd/ /’mɒdjʊləs/
degrees Centigrade /dɪ’gri:z ‘sentɪgreɪd/
degrees Fahrenheit /dɪ’gri:z ‘færənhaɪt/
°K degrees Kelvin /dɪ’gri:z ‘kelvɪn/
0°K, –273.15 °C absolute zero /absəlu:t zi:rəʊ/
mm millimetre /’mɪlɪmiːtə/
cm centimetre /’sentɪmiːtə/
cc, cm³ cubic centimetre, centimetre cubed /’kjuːbɪk ‘sentɪmiːtə/ /’sentɪmiːtə ‘kju:bd/
m metre /’miːtə/
km kilometre /kɪ’lɒmɪtə/
mg milligram /’mɪlɪgræm/
g gram /græm/
kg kilogram /’kɪləgræm/
AC A.C. /eɪ si:/
DC D.C. /di: si:/

^

Examples

x + 1 x plus one
x -1 x minus one
x ± 1 x plus or minus one
xy x y;  x times y; x multiplied by y
(x — y)(x + y)  x minus y, x plus y
x/y x over y;  x divided by y;
x ÷ y x divided by y
x = 5 x equals 5;  x is equal to 5
x ≈ y x is approximately equal to y
x ≡ y x is equivalent to y;  x is identical with y
x ≠ y x is not equal to y
x > y  x is greater than y
x < y  x is less than y
x ≥ y x is greater than or equal to y
x ≤ y x is less than or equal to y
0 < x < 1 zero is less than x is less than 1; x is greater than zero and less than 1
0 ≤ x ≤ 1 zero is less than or equal to x is less than or equal to 1; x is greater than or equal to zero and less than or equal to 1
x squared
x cubed
x4 x to the fourth;  x to the power four
xn x to the n; x to the nth;  x to the power n
x-n x to the minus n;  x to the power of minus n
root x; square root x; the square root of x
the cube root of x
the fourth root of x
the nth root of x
(x + y)² x plus y all squared
(x/y)² x over y all squared
n! n factorial; factorial n
x% x percent
infinity
x ∝ y x varies as y; x is (directly) proportional to y
x ∝ 1/y x varies as one over y; x is indirectly proportional to y
x dot
x double dot
f(x) fx f of x; the function of x
f'(x) f dash x; the (first) derivative of with respect to x
f”x f double-dash x; the second derivative of f with respect to x
f”'(x) f triple-dash x; f treble-dash x; the third derivative of f with respect to x
f(4) f four x; the fourth derivative of f with respect to x
∂v the partial derivative of v
∂v
∂θ
delta v by delta theta, the partial derivative of v with respect to θ
²v
∂θ²
delta two v by delta theta squared; the second partial derivative of v with respect to θ
dv the derivative of v
dv
d v by d theta, the derivative of v with respect to theta
d²v
²
d 2 v by d theta squared, the second derivative of v with respect to theta,
integral
integral integral from zero to infinity
sum
the sum from i equals 1 to n
w.r.t. with respect to
logey log to the base e of y; log y to the base e; natural log (of) y
therefore
because
gives, approaches
Δx → 0 delta x approaches zero
lim
Δx→0
the limit as delta x approaches zero, the limit as delta x tends to zero
Lt
Δx→0
the limit as delta x approaches zero, the limit as delta x tends to zero
m/sec metres per second
x ∈ A x belongs to A; x is a member of A; x is an element of A
x∉ A x does not belong to A; x is not  a member of A; x is not an element of A
A⊂ B A is contained in B; A is a proper subset of B
A ⊆ B A is contained in B; A is a subset of B
A ⋂ B A intersection B
A ⋃ B A union B
cos x cos x; cosine x
sin x sine x
tan x tangent x, tan x
cosec x cosec x
sinh x shine x
cosh x cosh x
tanh x than x
|x| mod x; modulus x
18 ℃ eighteen degrees Centigrade
70 ℉ seventy degrees Fahrenheit

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Cách đọc một số ký hiệu thông dụng trong tiếng Anh

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Xem thêm bài: Cách đọc ký hiệu toán học và khoa học trong tiếng Anh

và bài: Cách đọc một số ký hiệu và công thức hóa học phổ biến bằng tiếng Anh


 

Bài bên dưới là hướng dẫn cách đọc một số ký ký hiệu thông dụng trong tiếng Anh. Rất hữu ích.

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Lằng nhằng với đại từ chỉ người/nhân xưng

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The correct use of personal pronouns is one of the areas of English usage that cause most difficulty. I, he, she, we, and they are known as subjective personal pronouns because they are used as the subject of a sentence, often coming in front of the verb:

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Có nên dùng phủ định kép không?

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Xem thêm bài: Ôi, ngữ pháp! Đến dân bản ngữ cũng còn ỏm tỏi với nhau [2]


 

A double negative uses two negative words (in bold below) in the same clause to express a single negative idea:

We didn’t see nothing. [ = We saw nothing.]

She never danced with nobody. [ = She didn’t dance with anybody.]

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Có nên dùng phó từ để “phá” động từ nguyên thể?

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Xem thêm bài: Ôi, ngữ pháp! Đến dân bản ngữ cũng còn ỏm tỏi với nhau [2]


What are split infinitives?

Split infinitives happen when you put an adverb between to and a verb, for example:

She used to secretly admire him.

You have to really watch him.

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Một số trường hợp dùng giới từ ở cuối câu

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Xem thêm bài: Ôi, ngữ pháp! Đến dân bản ngữ cũng còn ỏm tỏi với nhau [2]


 

Were you taught that a preposition should never be placed at the end of a sentence? There are times when it would be rather awkward to organize a sentence in a way that would avoid doing this, for example:

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Tránh lỗi “lộn lèo” – Misplaced modifiers [1]

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(Xem thêm bài: “Tránh lỗi lộn lèo – Dangling modifier [2]“)

Có nhiều định nghĩa và cách phân loại khác nhau về misplaced và dangling modifier. Chỉ cần hiểu đâu là modifier, nó bổ nghĩa cho yếu tố nào trong câu, và đặt nó đúng chỗ là ổn.


Misplaced Modifiers

A misplaced modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that does not clearly relate to what it is intended to modify. In other words, a misplaced modifier makes the meaning of a sentence ambiguous or wrong.

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Tại sao nên dùng tiếng Anh tiêu chuẩn – standard English

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Standard English is the type of English that’s suitable for use in every type of written or spoken situation. The majority of words in English dictionaries and thesauruses are part of standard English.

The main advantage of using standard English is that it helps you to get your message across clearly and effectively, and to the widest range of people. It’s also more permanent than some other forms of language, such as slang, which often go out of fashion from one generation to the next.

Một số từ vựng “quá đát” trong tiếng Anh

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Some words that were common in the past are no longer in ordinary use but remain in our stock of words. Many dictionaries divide this type of vocabulary into two categories.

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Có nên dùng tiếng Anh “văn vẻ”?

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Some words are found mainly in literature and poetry that is written in a grand or elevated style. Today, you also find this type of language used in the media, where it tends to be used to create a dramatic effect. Here are some examples of literary vocabulary:

standard English literary
kill slay
enemy foe
apart asunder
beautiful beauteous
die perish

It’s best to avoid this type of language in everyday contexts. It can sound self-conscious or pretentious and it’s likely to distract a reader or listener from what you trying to say.

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Phân biệt giữa “jargon”, “slang”, “colloquial language”

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Colloquial language and slang overlap to a certain extent. Both are informal, and are more common in spoken than in written language. You might use either when speaking or writing to a friend; when speaking to a person in authority or writing to an acquaintance you might use colloquial language but avoid slang, and you would not use either in a formal letter or report.

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Tiếng Anh dân dã – Coi chừng kẻo vạ miệng

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Informal language is mainly used between people who know each other well, or in relaxed and unofficial contexts.

Here are some examples of informal English words and their standard equivalents:

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Tiếng lóng trong tiếng Anh

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Slang is a type of language used by a particular group of people – e.g. teenagers – or by people in a particular occupation – e.g. members of the army. It can act as a kind of code: using slang creates a sense of identity or belonging among members of the group and effectively excludes outsiders. It’s better to avoid using this sort of language in general contexts as people outside the group in question may not understand it, or may well interpret it wrongly.

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Cách dùng “historic” và “historical”

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Historic and historical are used in slightly different ways. Historic means ‘famous or important in history’, as in a historic occasion, whereas historical means ‘concerning history or historical events’, as in historical evidence; thus a historic event is one that was very important, whereas ahistorical event is something that happened in the past.

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Cách viết thư mời và trả lời thư mời – Writing invitation letters

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If you are sending a formal invitation, for example to a wedding or other important social occasion, you should use a style of address written in the third person (i.e. using your surname and the pronouns ‘they’ or ‘their’ rather than ‘I’, ‘we’, or ‘our’). Include full details of where and when the event is taking place and who the person invited should reply to.

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Cách viết thư khiếu nại – Writing a letter of complaint

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If you are writing a letter of complaint, here are some dos and don’ts that can help you get the right outcome:

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Cách viết báo cáo bằng tiếng Anh

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Clip by Massey University on Youtube. Thanks for sharing.


 

Writing a report will typically involve collecting evidence or information about a particular issue or initiative, evaluating that information, and presenting the findings in an objective way. Most reports also offer recommendations for discussion or future action.

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Cách viết thư tín bằng tiếng Anh – Writing a business letter

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When writing an official business letter, it’s important to keep your tone and language relatively formal. Note that ‘formal’ doesn’t mean pompous or obscure: you should use words with which you are familiar yourself and which you can reasonably expect the letter’s recipient to understand.

You should also avoid technical phrases or jargon, particularly abbreviations, unless you are certain that the person you are writing to will understand them.

See more below:

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Cách viết thư xin việc – Writing job applications [2]

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Employers may receive hundreds of applications for a job, so it’s vital to make sure that the letter or e-mail you send with your CV/résumé creates the right impression. It’s your opportunity to say why you want the job and to present yourself as a candidate for the post in a way that impresses a prospective employer and makes you stand out as a prospective employee.

See more below:

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Cách viết CV bằng tiếng Anh – CV writing etiquitte [3]

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Before beginning to draft your CV/résumé, read the advert carefully so that you are clear about the specific requirements of the job you’re applying for. It’s important to tailor both your application letter and the CV/résumé to the job in question, focusing on qualifications and experience that are particularly relevant.

 

Dos and Don’ts

Here are some general points to bear in mind when preparing your CV/résumé:

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Dùng “cannot” hay “can not”

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Both cannot and can not are acceptable spellings, but the first is much more usual. You would use can not when the ‘not’ forms part of another construction such as ‘not only’. For example:

These green industries can not only create more jobs, but also promote sustainable development of the land.

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Tại sao chữ “w” lại đọc là “double u” chứ không phải là “double v”

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English uses the Latin alphabet of the Romans. However, this had no letter suitable for representing the speech sound /w/ which was used in Old English, though phonetically the sound represented by /v/ was quite close. In the 7th century scribes wrote uu for /w/; later they used the runic symbol known as wynn. European scribes had continued to write uu, and this usage returned to England with the Norman Conquest in 1066. Early printers sometimes used vv for lack of a w in their type. The name double-u recalls the former identity of u and v, which you can also see in a number of  words with a related origin, for example flour/flower, guard/ward, orsuede/Swede.

(Based on the Oxford Companion to the English Language)

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Ký hiệu # có tên gọi là gì trong tiếng Anh?

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It has several names. The most common is probably hash. In North American English, it’s sometimes called the pound sign and used as a symbol for pounds weight: this can be confusing for British people for whom a pound sign is £. It’s also known as the number sign in North American English, in contexts such as go to question #2. In a musical context, the symbol is known as a sharp. The picturesque name octothorpe has also been introduced: it’s said to have been invented by an employee of Bell Laboratories in the 1960s, in honour of the American athlete Jim Thorpe (with the octo- part deriving from the symbol’s eight points). In the large form in which it appears on telephones it’s sometimes called  a square.

Recently, the hash sign has acquired a new role. On social networking sites such as Twitter, it’s attached to keywords or phrases so as to identify messages on a particular topic (e.g. #volcano; #Iceland). These keywords or phrases are known as hashtags.

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Có từ nào chỉ “con bò”, chứ không hẳn “con bò đực” hay “con bò cái”, không?

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The truth is that there is no noun in general use that refers equally to a cow or a bull.

Zoologists use two terms. The first is ‘ox’, which is often restricted to animals of the genus Bos (i.e. the wild cattle – gaur, banteng, yak, aurochs, and kouprey – as well as domestic cattle). In popular use, though, the word ‘ox’ often refers to a castrated male animal, so that isn’t a perfect solution. The second zoological term is ‘bovine’,  which is used as a noun to refer to any animal of the wider group that comprises cattle, buffaloes, and bison. But this would be a strange choice in most general contexts.

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Từ chỉ “người chỉ ăn kiêng thịt, nhưng vẫn ăn cá”

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You can use the term pescatarian. It’s quite a recent word, first recorded in the 1990s, and it comes from the Italian noun pesce, meaning fish. Because it’s still relatively new, the word may not be familiar to some people, so you may need to explain what you mean if you use it.

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